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Differentiation and Dispersal of Man 


By Robert Bennett Bean, M. D. 


Highlights oj Modern Knowledge 




New Yo r k 

JiiN 2 4 1940 


Copyright, 1932, 1935, BY 




First Trade Edition 1935 



Manufactured in the U. S. A. 



I General Survey 1 

The Proper Study of Mankind is Man — The Nature of 
the Subject — Methods Used by Anthropologists 

II A Brief View of Prehistoric Peoples 6 

The Influence of Ancient Peoples — The Spread of the 
Peoples Through Europe — Early Industries and Civil- 
ization — Differences Existed Among Ancient Peoples 

III The Natural History of Man 14 

The Ascent of Man — Man Is a Primate — Primitiveness 
versus Specialization — Tracing True Man's Ascent — 
Neanderthal Man — Causes for Man's Spread Over the 
Earth — Climatic Influences — Summary of the Chapter 

IV The Evolution of Special Attributes in Man 33 

Brain Development and Its Significance — Development 
of Association Areas — Factors Which Determined the 
Primates — Binocular Vision of Great Value — Facial Ex- 
pression — Racial Differences in Expression — The Cause 
of the Variety of Expression — A Characteristic Nose. 

V Formation of Races 40 

The Effect of Mutations on Race — The Meaning of 
Changes in Man's Structure 

VI The Three Great Races of Man 43 

Resemblances, Differences, and Relations — Races and 
Species — The Development of Races — Effect of Cli- 
matic and Geographic Conditions — The Blending of 
Races — Distinguishing Race Characteristics — Basic Physi- 
cal Differences — Basic Chemical Differences — Basic Func- 
tional Differences — Basic Mental Differences — Basic 
Pathologic Differences 

VII Racial Movements 54 

The Three Chief Forms of Dispersal — Reasons for 




VIII The Dispersal of Man 57 

Dispersal by Spreading — The First Spreading Move- 
ment — The Second Spreading Movement — The Third 
Spreading Movement — The Fourth Spreading Move- 
ment — The Fifth Spreading Movement — The Sixth 
Spreading Movement — Dispersal by Invasion — The First 
Invasion — The Second Invasion — The Third Invasion — 
The Fourth Invasion — The Fifth Invasion — The Sixth 
Invasion — The Seventh Invasion — The Eighth Invasion 
— Migration 

IX Modern Man 87 

Skin Characteristics — Hair Characteristics — The Iris and 
Pigmentation — Differences in Physical Structure — Head 
and Skull — The Neck and Body — The Ear — Mental 
Characteristics of the Three Races — Recapitulation 

X Classification of Man 97 

Sub-Races of the White Race — The Mediterranean Race 
— The Alpine Race — The Nordic Race — The Australian 
Race — The Hamitic Race — The Semitic Race — The Sub- 
Races of the Yellow-Brown Race — The Mongolian Race 
— The American Indian — The Malay Race — The Sub- 
Races of the Black Race — The Negro Race — The Ne- 
grillo and Negrito Races — The Bushmen — Location of 
the Mixed Races 

Appendix 115 

Suggestions for Further Reading 121 

Glossary 123 

Index 127 


Differentiation and Dispersal of Man 

By Robert Bennett Bean, M.D. 



Ales Hrdlicka 

zuliose assistance in revising 

the manuscript of this book 

is deeply appreciated 


From an old engraving 



"The proper study of mankind is man." — Pope. 

The history of the past has great interest for the modern 
man because it illuminates and interprets the present. In- 
vestigations to discover the ancient life and movements of races 
are not made merely to obtain information, important as that 
may be. There is a deeper and more far-reaching purpose. 
By revealing the past life and experiences of man, and by tracing 
his development step by step throughout the ages, the oneness 
and unity of all life is made clear and the character and im- 
portance of our common humanity take on new meaning. To 
understand the facts and ideas of the past and their relation to 
the present is to greatly enlarge man's mental vision, wonder- 
fully enrich his imagination, and broaden his human sympathies. 
Therefore, modern man is becoming more and more interested 
in obtaining a larger and a more sympathetic interpretation of 
the facts of his own life on the earth in order to clarify his ideas 
and to arrive at some intelligent understanding of the history 
and meaning of human existence. 

The story of man — how and when and where the various 
races originated and how they spread over the earth, the nature 
of the cultures, the differences, resemblances, and relationships of 
the various peoples, their activities and thought — is a subject 
of universal and absorbing interest. But more than this, this 
study is vital to a true appreciation of our modern social order 
and to a correct perception of the evolution of man himself. 

We must keep in mind, however, that man has not yet reached 
the summit of his career or of civilization. Man is still in the 
making, and while he lives in a vastly different world from that 
which engaged prehistoric man, and to some degree is a different 
kind of man, nevertheless what he now is has largely been 



derived from the past — not from a portion of the past or within 
narrow geographical limits, but from all the past centuries of 
life and experience. 

We can readily see, therefore, how the study of mankind 
(anthropology) affords us a common ground of understanding, 
and how it gives us a fuller knowledge and a more comprehen- 
sive view of human life and progress. 

The Nature of the Subject 

Anthropology is a subject which embodies both the cultural 
and physical characteristics of man. The cultural side includes 
philology, or linguistics, and the customs, habits, and religions of 
man, with folklore and archeology. The physical side includes 
comparative human anatomy, physiology, psychology, pathology, 
the chemical characteristics of different races and groups of men, 
as in the blood and other fluids, and paleontology, the study of 
remains of antiquity. 

We see that this is quite a wide range of subjects, yet it does 
not include all that come into relation with man. History is 
the written word or symbol, but archeology or paleontology may 
afford a more nearly correct account of the past life and certainly 
of the past types of man. A study of man's literature is but a 
study of his psychic life. Indeed, every sphere of human knowl- 
edge touches upon anthropology. 

This book deals with the physical side of man only, but it 
will be written in vain if it fails to make clear that the study of 
the differentiation of man and of his evolution in the formation 
of races,* with their distribution over the world, is a subject of 
ever broadening human interest. No matter what branch of 
learning we may select we will soon find that it has, directly or 
indirectly, some relation to man. 

Methods Used by Anthropologists 

The methods by which anthropologists have discovered and 
worked out what is known about prehistoric and living man are 
chiefly paleontology, archeology, ethnology, linguistics, and 
physical anthropology. The most important discoveries of the 
skeletons and handiwork of ancient man have been made in 

* For an explanation of the terms race, species, and genus, see pages 43-44. 


river terraces, under the floors of caves, under the mud and 
gravel of glaciers, in the deposits of cinders, dust, and lava from 
volcanoes, and in the excavations of long-lost ruined cities. 

The remains found high up on the upper river terraces are 
of an earlier period than those found nearer the present banks 
of the river — for as the river deepened its channel, man moved 
to the newly exposed and lower terraces. In the caves the 
remains are covered by the debris left by later inhabitants of the 
caves or by droppings from the roof of the cave, or in some cases 
by the stalactites and stalagmites which formed as the roof of the 
cave was eroded by water. The later remains are higher and 
nearer the present floor of the cave. 

The ruined cities of the East afford evidence through 
archeological excavations that one city was built upon the ruins 
of another, sometimes as many as thirty times in one place. The 
cities were walled and the debris of each ruin filled the place to 
the top of the wall before another city with a new wall was 
built on top of the old site. The different levels may have been 
occupied by people of different races and cultures.* The remains 
of broken pottery, of tools, of various kinds of architecture, and 
of different kinds of skeletons enable an archeologist to define 
the race and culture of each level. Sometimes a whole country 
with all its cities and towns was devastated and the places 
burned; the same kind of race and culture over a given area 
would mean that the people lived there at the same time. Thus 
the period of occupation of a country by one race at a certain 
time in relation to other races and other periods of time can be 

To some extent the same is true of the remains in river 
terraces and caves. According to the law of superposition the 
deeper the strata, the earlier and simpler the form of life. 
Fossils show a relationship to each other among themselves, 
comparable to the relationships and grading of modern animals, 
and this grading corresponds to the layers in which the fossils 
are found. Any one stratum may contain remains that no other 
stratum contains. So we study the remains of man, with his 
implements and other evidences of culture at different levels, 

* Culture — "the sum of all the ideals and activities and materials which char- 
acterize a group of human beings." 


together with the remains of animal and plant life, in order that 
we may reconstruct something of the history and manner of life 
of these prehistoric people. , 

When we consider the vast length of prehistoric time — mil- 

Underzvood & Underwood 


Tracing the route in Alaska of the Asiatic invasion of North America 

lions upon millions of years — and, until comparatively recent 
times, the lack of historic records or evidences of prehistoric life 
and movements, we can visualize the immensity of the problems 
modern anthropologists have been called upon to solve, and 


realize the difficulties experienced in attempting to harmonize 
the different points of view. 

Investigation and discovery are man's life-blood. Through 
his researches, systematic studies, and inventions he has not only 
changed the face of the earth and human relations, but he has 
changed the thought of the world. It is a long way from the 
crudely formed flints and other implements of primitive life to 
the Machine Age of Man. Much water has passed over the dam 
since man's first efforts to provide food and shelter, since his 
first attempts at speech and writing, and his first expressions in 
art and music. As Anatole France has well said, "Man entered 
painfully on his kingdom. He was defenseless and naked." 
But in his evolution we see pictured the real drama of life — 
from its first beginnings in great weakness, darkness, lack of 
knowledge and physical equipment to a gradual unfolding of. 
mind and spirit that captures our imaginations by the marvels* 
of its triumphs. 

Although great advances have been made during the last 
hundred years in interpreting the past, much yet remains to be 
done before so vast and complex a subject can be treated with 
the complete assurance that the final word has been said on 
every aspect of this great branch of knowledge. 

In the following pages we shall attempt to trace some of the 
steps in man's ascent; show some of the methods of differentia- 
tion of man in the formation of races; point out the main routes 
of race dispersal; describe as briefly and as clearly as possible 
the characteristics of the chief races and their subdivisions, and 
indicate their present locations. This outline is simple, but the 
parts are complex, and the task is to unravel the manifold 
threads of racial differences and thus help to clarify the cultural, 
linguistic, and archeological tangle and unite all into a har- 
monious whole. 



The Influence of Ancient Peoples 

IN the course of time many peoples have come and gone, and 
even civilizations for one reason or another have disappeared. 
We little dreamed in 1890 what an important part Crete had 
played in the civilization of the Mediterranean by carrying the 
civilization of Egypt into Greece and even as late as 1870 the 
existence of the Sumerians was unknown; but through the ex- 
cavations in Mesopotamia of the joint expedition of the British 
Museum and the University of Pennsylvania Museum, and of 
other expeditions, their history can now be written and their art 
illustrated more fully than is possible of many ancient peoples. 
The influences of Sumerian civilization upon our modern life 
have been surpassingly great. Their military conquests, the high 
level of their arts and crafts, their written language, their com- 
mercial organization, their development of the arch, the vault, 
and the dome, their social organization and high conceptions of 
morality, their history of the Creation, the Flood, their laws 
(the pentateuch of Moses), and their ideals of justice have in- 
fluenced Christianity perhaps more than has Judaism. 

Urartu, an independent kingdom north of Assyria in the time 
of Tiglathpilezer, about 700 B.C., fought with the Kings of Assur 
as only great kingdoms can fight, yet had not the princes carved 
inscriptions on the rocks of Van the history would have been 
quite unknown. We scarcely remembered Elam * before the 
excavations in Persia. Even yet we know nothing of the power- 
ful rulers who constructed what are now the ruins of Yucatan 
(Mexico). These examples give us pause when we attempt to 
reconstruct the past. 

* An ancient empire, east of the lower Tigris, south of Media, and north of 
the Persian Gulf. 



We talk of the epoch of the dolmens as though the sepulchral 
monuments — dolmens, menhirs, and cromlechs — had been con- 
structed at the same time and by the same people in many parts 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 

iftii ii <l*Hllhr 



of the world. The fact is the dawn of history started only with 
the development of writing. Chaldea, Elam, and Egypt early 
realized the value of permanent records, but many peoples un- 
fortunately have left no annals. Then came the civilizations of 
Crete, Phoenicia, Assyria, the Hittites, and Cyprus, and finally 
the Greeks and Latins appeared on the scene. The Barbarians 
registered their history later, although earlier it was blazed in 
archeology through their tools, their pottery, and their swords. 
The history of Gaul began with Caesar and the history of Scandi- 
navia with the Carlovingians, but the unassimilated peoples of 
the New World, of the Pacific, and of central Africa are with- 
out history. 

The Spread of the Peoples Through Europe 

In Europe and Asia the Glacial period, beginning about 
300,000 years ago, followed in the course of time the upthrusts 
of the terrestrial crust which formed the Pyrenees, Alps, Cau- 



casus, and Himalayas, the greatest mountain ranges in the world 
in elevation and grandeur. This upthrust may have led to the 

Courtesy of the Cunard Line 


great snow fields of the North. The line of mountain cleavage 
divided man in Europe into two groups that have developed 
in two divergent lines, the result chiefly of climatic differences. 
Central Europe was warmer in mid-glacial times than at present 
and north Africa was warm and moist instead of hot and dry 
as it is now. These differences are reflected in man's life, his 
tools, and his customs, as we shall see. 

We know that man of the Neanderthal * form existed all 
over Europe during the latter third of the Ice Age, and spread 
away as the ice receded to become altered into other forms, such 
as the aboriginal Australian, American Indian, and early Aurig- 
nacian; later into the Hamitic, the Semitic, the Alpine, the 
Mediterranean, and the Nordic races, and the multitudinous 
groups of modern peoples all over the world. We shall learn 
about all these races in a later chapter. 

The first traces of human intelligence, as shown in the 
Paleolithic flint implements, followed the setting in of the Ice 
Age, and as further climatic changes ensued, we pass successively 
from the rough stone of the Pre-Chellean period through the 

* For explanation of the Neanderthal and other ancient forms mentioned in 

this chapter sec the Glossary. 


Chellean and Acheulian periods to the much more advanced of 
the Mousterian period, and then through the progressing Aurig- 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 


1, hand-ax or chopping tool of Chellean period; 2. dagger or perforating tool of Acheulian 

period; 3, scraper of Mousterian period 

nacian, Solutrean, and Magdelenian periods, with the gradual 
development of animal art. 

The snow and ice of the Alps, the Caucasus, the Persian and 
Iranian plateaus, and the Aralo-Caspian Lake extended to the 
polar ice, and man developed in small groups in isolated places. 
When these gates of ice opened, man spread and developed cul- 
tures, beginning with agriculture; first in all the section south 
of the mountain divide, and later to the north. The northerly 
route through marshes, and later steppes, in Siberia and Russia, 
was more difficult than the southerly, and many centuries, or 
perhaps thousands of years, separated the advent of man's re- 
turn to Europe through the northerly route from his return 
through the southerly route. 

Early Industries and Civilization 

The Mesolithic industries include the Azilian, Tardenoisian, 
Maglemosian, and Campignian epochs. The period showed 
some knowledge of pottery. Grains had already begun to be 
cultivated in the East, and cooking in pots now took the place 



Courtesy of the American Museum of ftaiura. History 


1, ax-hammer of stone, perforated for hafting; 2. ax of flint, partly polished; 3. saw of flint 
with one edge notched: 4. dagger of flint; 5. knife, or sickle blade; 6, arrowpoint 

of cooking on open hearths. Wave after wave of peoples poured 
over Europe for thousands of years, first from the south and 
later from north of the mountain barrier. Some of these move- 
ments coming later, in the Neolithic age (about 5000 B.C.), 
brought into Europe the knowledge of polished stone, cattle 
raising, many forms of agriculture, and also weaving. 

In the course of the Neolithic industry, copper, the precursor 
of bronze, was discovered; this was at least three millenniums 
before the Christian era. Copper was discovered in th e nort hern 
mountains of western Asia, where it was plentiful. Soon after 
this came the development and use of the bronze sword, later 
followed by the iron sword, which figured in the wars waged by 
the conquering Horsemen of the Steppes of 2500 to 500 B.C. 
over the greater part of Europe and southern Asia. Iron ap- 
peared about 1000 B.C. 


Neolithic men, probably not later than 4000 B.C., coming 
from western and central Europe, were the first settlers in Scan- 
dinavia and Finland, although the Epi-Paleolithic men, like the 
Aurignacian, the Cro-Magnon, and the more recent Nordic Race 
were there before; and here, later than in southern Europe, we 
find evidences of the culture of the Neolithic peoples in their 
work of polished stone, copper, bronze, and iron. 

The first of modern peoples to appear in central Europe were 
the Alpine Race, who occupied the whole of central and eastern 
Europe before the advent of the Horsemen of the Steppes, who 
cut through them, conquered or dispersed them, or settled down, 
lived with them, and intermarried. 

In the meantime civilization had started in Elam and was 
carried on by the Semitic and Mediterranean races in Chaldea 
and about 2900 B.C. by the first Pharaohs in Egypt, contempo- 
raneously with the civilization of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. 
This civilization was carried by the Hamitic and Mediterranean 
races from Egypt to the island of Crete; in Greece it met the 
culture of the Alpine and other races from the north. The first 
of the Mediterranean migrants into Greece were the Pelasgians, 
who settled in Greece and Asia Minor. Then followed the 
Aegeans after the Minoan * culture had been established thor- 
oughly in Crete. Later there appeared from the north, from 
Thrace and the Danube, the Mycenean t culture of the Alpine 
Race; this race, also known as Thraco-Phrygians, was closely 
related to the inhabitants of ancient Greece. 

At this time the Hellenic peninsula and its islands were, it 
would appear, but sparsely settled. Later the coast of north 
Africa is found to be inhabited by a native population of the 
Hamitic Race, who had developed a phase of the Paleolithic cul- 
ture, called Capsian, which was more suited to their needs. 

Differences Existed Among Ancient Peoples 

As the years went on each people in Europe shared in the 
general progress but there were wide divergences in aptitudes 
and tastes, and all were not equally apt at learning or in assimi- 
lating higher ideas. The Horsemen of the Steppes, who came 

* A prehistoric culture of Crete prior to the Mycenian culture. 
f A forerunner of Hellenic or Greek culture. 



later than the Mediterraneans, were cruder in culture than the 
latter, though possessing greater fighting ability and organiza- 
tion. We know they did not lack in aptitude and individual 
genius, for from their stock mixed with that of the Alpines and 
of the Mediterraneans were to spring the Hellenes and the 
Latins, whose ancestral ideas were complemented by what they 
learned from African cultures. Eventually the latter surpassed 
their teachers from north, south, and east in every branch of 
human knowledge. 

In the land of their origin some were more advanced than 
others. Even in historic times such differences persisted. The 
"Barbarians of the North" possessed more advanced ideas than 
the Roman in some respects, but were behind in others. Thus 
it was that the Greco-Latin culture, which dominated the world 
for a long period, was not comprehended in every land to the 
same degree, and many peoples still retained their barbarian in- 
stincts although they had the veneer of culture and its intel- 
lectual activities. 

The Ligurians of northern Italy, through their tradesmen, 
spread the smooth stone and bronze cultures over northern 
Europe, from the Russian plains to the Atlantic, and peopled 
part of Gaul. Then came the peoples of the Hallstatt culture 
of painted pottery, weaving, and metal working, especially the 

Courtesy of the British Museum 


The one on the left is % actual size, and the one on the right is % actual size 


iron industry, through the Danube country. Ligurians and the 
Horsemen of the Steppes brought specialized industries and 
artistic tastes. The first built their art on geometric figures, the 
second on men and animals, but used the geometric designs. The 
Ligurians and the Horsemen, as we shall see later, were prob- 
ably derived from the same stock in the same area, as they were 
forerunners of vast hordes of similar Aryans who followed them 
for centuries, if not thousands of years. They had nothing in 
common with the civilizations of the East, except their high 
original spiritual and personal ideals, nor with the Mediter- 
ranean civilization. The industry succeeding the Hallstatt, with 
its iron swords, and its horses and chariots, known as "La Tene," 
shows abundant evidence of mixture with Mycenaean, Greek, and 
Etruscan * influences. 

In Irania the Aryans imposed their speech and culture on 
other peoples, but kept their racial characters distinct. Thus 
we read of such noble rulers as Darius, Cyrus, and some of the 
other Achaemenides; of such great heroes as Rustum; of poets, 
mystics, and philosophers, such as Hafiz, Saadi, and Omar Khay- 
yam — each of whom can hold his own with modern rivals. So 
also from the Indo-Aryans we inherit a rich legacy of a copious 
and varied literature — the Veda, the sacred literature of 
Hinduism; the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two great 
epics of India; and endless theosophic writings. The ancient 
Aryan of the East and West possessed some of the highest 
ideals; and from that time to the present the impress of their 
ideas upon the thought of the West in Europe, Britain, and 
America, and upon the East in India, China, and Japan, is clearly 

* From Etruria, which comprised the region of Italy between the rivers Arno 
and Tiber inland to the Apennines. 



The Ascent of Man 

To understand the natural history of man and his ascent it 
may be well to consider briefly something of the geologic 
and climatic conditions preceding his ascent, and some of the 
forms of life which existed on the earth before his advent. 

The tertiary epoch, essentially the age of the development of 
mammals and the higher plants, is divided into four periods, each 
several millions of years in duration, namely, the Eocene, the 
Oligocene, the Miocene, and the Pliocene. The oldest of these, 

© by the Field Museum 

:... ' : 

Fig. 7— A SEA BEACH 500,000,000 YEARS AGO 

All the known life at that time was marine; the largest known animal was a straight-shelled 
mollusk, Orthoceras, whose shells sometimes reached a length of fifteen feet 

From the painting by Charles R. Knight rvhi'ch was presented to the Field Museum by 

Ernest R. Graham 


(c) by the Field Museum 

Fig. 8— A FOREST 350.000.000 YEARS AGO 

During Devonian times, the expanding plant life first attained the size of trees. These in- 
cluded the now extinct group of seed ferns and the giant ancestor of modern club mosses 
and of modern scouring rushes. Interspersed with these trees grew other comparatively small 
plants which may be considered as transitional between sea weeds and true land plants 

Fig. 9— MAMMALS OF 20.000.000 YEARS AGO 

Those restored here, from left to right, are a slender llama-like camel, a two-horned rhinoceros, 
a three-toed horse, a giant pig, and a claw-footed animal. Remains of all the animals have been 

found in Nebraska 

Fig. 10— MAMMALS OF 15.000.000 YEARS AGO 

At the left is a group of short-legged rhinoceroses; in the center are two four-tusked mastodons; 

at the right is a ruminating hog 

Figures 8, 9, and 10 arc from the paintings by Charles R. Knight which were presented to the 

Field Museum by Ernest R. Graham 



the Eocene, or "Dawn," period, saw a beginning of the Primates 
— the Tarsioids, small catlike animals approaching the lemurs 
and small monkeys. In the Oligocene and Miocene periods 
came true lemurs, monkeys, and eventually some primitive 
anthropoid apes, such as the Dryopithecus of Europe and India. 
The Pliocene is the period of differentiation in the apes — 
Pliopitheciis is almost a full-fledged gibbon — and also in this 
period developed the superior forms which were the precursors 
of man. After this period came the Quaternary epoch, or Ice 
Age, characterized by one or more cold periods when ice was 
spread over a large part of the earth in the northern hemisphere, 
with warm periods occurring in between. At this time appeared 
something entirely new, chipped flints, which show the handiwork 
of some form at least approaching that of man. As time went 
on these flints increased in variety and bear evidence of skill in 
their development. In all this there is an orderly sequence that 
must be given weight in our studies of man's origin. 

Man began to develop his present form in the Pleistocene 
period. During the Eocene period Asia and Europe had a warm 
and equable climate and anthropoids lived far toward the north 
of these two continents. Some of them were of large size, indi- 
cating that conditions were favorable and food abundant. The 
Oligocene period was cooler, and the Miocene was colder and 
drier. Palms disappeared from northern Europe, food was 
scarcer and life became more difficult. When the fruit and nut 
trees had been crowded out and famine threatened, the anthro- 
poids moved farther south for food and comfort. Doubtless 
there was still much food on the ground in the form of small 
fruits and berries, roots and tubers, but as the anthropoids were 
obliged to live most of the time in the trees existence indeed 
became uncertain. 

During the latter part of the Quaternary epoch a dry and 
harsh climate fitted vast plains for grazing animals and provided 
great forests for game. This was an age of great abundance 
of food for mammals, but the slow and extended progress of 
increasing cold culminated in the Ice Age, destructive to much 
animal life in the northern hemisphere. The aridity was even 
worse than the cold. At this time the great inland sea basin, 
from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean, began to rise, the 



Fig. 11— THE JAVA MAN 

Pithecanthropus erectus 


Homo neanderthalensis 

These restorations in the American Museum of Natural History were made by Dr. James 
Howard McGregor and are modeled on restored skulls 

first uplift taking place along the Pyrenees and the Alps. The 
old inland sea was displaced, and the greatest mountains of the 
world, the Alps and the Himalayas, grew by repeated upthrusts. 
Forests disappeared, and vast hordes of forest-dwelling animal 
forms were exterminated. Animals of the plains flourished and 
there was a great increase of horses, rhinos, and cloven-footed 
ruminants. The mountains shut out the moisture, lessened by the 
reduction of the seas, and aridity increased over large regions. 
The anthropoids spread over India and into Africa. Some 
of the hardier members who had remained in the cold, dry areas, 
began to descend from the trees, seeking the food upon the 
ground. This was a dangerous experiment. Only the most 
active, wary, and quick-witted survived. Some of these, not 
baffled by the hazard of their new life, became superior to their 
fellows, developing a fair-sized brain, together with a more 
discriminate use of their hands and feet. Manlike forms, such 
as the Java man (Pithecanthropus erectus) in Asia and the 
Neanderthal man (Homo neanderthalensis) in Europe and later 
forms, developed at this time. 


Man Is a Primate 

Man is included with the Primates, so called because they 
are the premiers of mammalia. However, man, in the sense thai : 
he is not so far along in his own evolution, is actually more 
primitive than the lower forms. This is because of the lack 
of that differentiation and specialization which distinguish the 
camel and the horse or the lemurs, the monkeys, and the apes. 

Primitiveness versus Specialization 

Animals, with the exception of man, have missed premiership 
because of their specialization. A rapid specialization means a 
loss of adaptability. Hoofed animals eliminated tree life, thus 
all possibility of the development of skill in manipulations was 
lost to them. The brains of carnivora, or flesh-eating mammals, 
are much more specialized and complex than are those of some 
primate brains, but they are specialized in such a way that the 
association of ideas and the ability to think have been lost to them. 
The hand of man is a much more highly organized mechanism 
than his foot, yet the foot is a more specialized but less primitive 
organ than the hand. Any thoughtful student will appreciate 
the difference between primitiveness and specialization. 

The Shrews are divided into land and tree varieties. The 
land variety possesses a brain made up largely of the olfactory 
or smelling mechanism; the tree variety, on the other hand, pos- 
sesses a brain made up of a relatively large visual mechanism. 
The latter was the first step in the evolution of the Primates, 
and was an advance in the right direction. In the Tarsioids 
there was a notable advance in the same direction; the olfactory 
brain was eclipsed and vision was paramount. Then came the 
monkeys who had shorter snouts, and instead of claws, five fin- 
gers (with nails) on each hand and whose forward-looking eyes 
developed a binocular (stereoscopic) vision. 

The tree shrews and lemurs had such skill in balancing the 
body and judging distances in leaping and swinging from tree 
to tree or from limb to limb that those portions of the brain 
controlling the equilibrium of the body — the cerebellum and 
semi-circular canals correlated with the binocular visual mecha- 
nism, the cerebrum — developed in these animals to a large extent. 



This Same development Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 

occurred in man by rea- 
son of his erect posture 
and has resulted in a rela- 
tively large cerebellum 
and visual mechanism. 
Sitting upright, as do the 
apes, developed more deli- 
cate manipulation in the 
freedom of the arms, and 
this led to a close associa- 
tion of the movements of 
the arms and hands with 
binocular vision, and re- 
sulted in the develop- 
ment of brachiating * 
movements. By turning 
the backbone on end the 
apes set themselves on 
their feet and raised their 
faces toward the sky, 
and thus encouraged the hand and brain to work out life on a 
higher plane. 

The monkeys were the first to execute wonderful feats in 
balancing and ballistics, but the performances of the gibbons are 
so dazzling that those of the monkeys pale in comparison. 

The later apes left the forest and wandered far over plain 
and plateau, with increasingly upright posture and heavy lumber- 
ing bodies, appearing somewhat similar to the gorilla and to the 
Neanderthal man. 

The monkeys and apes are more specialized than man, but 
all these forms are mere offshoots from the parent stem which 
have specialized more or less, each in his own direction. 


From a photograph taken by the Columbia University 
— American Museum Expedition of 1929-1931 

Tracing True Man's Ascent 

Out of the depths.. of past ages man has evolved- — nobody 
knows from where and nobody knows from what. Forms have 
been found in Asia and in Africa which are supposed to have been 

* Brachiating, swinging by the arms from tree branch to tree branch. 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 




















human precursors, but not 
until we reach the Nean- 
derthal phase of physical 
man are we on firm 
ground, and from that 
time to the present, man 
as a distinct species may 
be traced in Europe 
through his evolution in 
almost unbroken lines. 
Although the Neander- 
thal man was subject to 
even harder conditions in 
Europe than those which 
had existed in Asia or in 
Africa, we find, not later 
than 28,000 B.C., some of 
these peoples spread over 
many of the more habit- 
able parts of Europe. 
The ice at this time had 
gone farther north than 
St. Johnsbury, Vermont, 
in America, Pomerania in 
northern Europe, and 
■ Zurich in the Alps. 

Fig. 15— A GIBBON 

Neanderthal Man 

Parts of more than a 
hundred skeletons of the Neanderthal form, or closely related 
thereto, have been found in Europe and Asia from Gibraltar to 
Moravia, and from the Neander Valley to Galilee, Crimea, and 
far-off Peking (Sinanthropus pekinensis) . They have come from 
river drift, rock shelters, old caves, ancient gravels or sands, and 
even from hard stones, and they have been picked up with the 
bones of ancient, long extinct mammals, such as woolly rhinocer- 
oses, woolly mammoths, cave bears, lions, hyenas, horses, oxen, 
and elks. 

The earlier forms of man chipped flints of quartz or other 

The gibbons are considered the lowest of the anthro- 
poid apes 

From a photograph by Elwin R. Sanborn 



stone by percussion, later by pressure. .Along with this industry 
there were hunting and trapping and probably fishing. Food 

Courtesy of the N. Y, Zoological Society 


Spider monkeys are the most slender of American monkeys, are strictly arboreal, have exces- 
sively elongated hands, and are thumbless 

From a photograph by Elwin R. Sanborn 


Courtesy of the N. Y. Zoological Society 

Fig. 17— A GORILLA 
From a photograph by Elwin R. Sanborn 

was prepared by roasting over the coals. There was no agri- 
culture and no evidence of the domestication of animals. Nean- 
derthal man was burly, often of great strength, about five feet 
three inches in average male height, compactly built, with long 
arms, and probably did not walk in a perfectly erect position.* 
He had beetling brows which show on the skeleton as a heavy 
roll of thick bone running across the base of the forehead just 
above the eyes. He had a large prominent aquiline nose, and 
jaws with larger teeth than any modern man. His feet were not 
perfectly adapted for terrestrial locomotion, nor his hands for 
multiple movements, because his thumb had not yet become 
separated from the forefinger so much as in modern man. He 
was a worthy foe of his animal contemporaries, whom he met 
in the open in vicious combat, or trapped in huge pits where 
they were killed later with spears, clubs, or great stones. What- 
ever forms may have preceded the Neanderthal, their culture 

* For additional information concerning the physical structure and activities 
of the Neanderthal and other races and peoples see Chapter IV. 



© by the Field Museum 


The cave bear lived in Europe during the Ice Age; its fossil bones are found in caves along 
with those of primitive man. It is the largest bear known to science 

From the painting by Charles R. Knight which was presented to the Field Museum by 

Ernest R. Graham 

was continuous with the latter, and the forms of man that fol- 
lowed the Neanderthal continued his culture in part at least, but 
of course with alterations as time went on. 

© by the Field Museum 


The woolly mammoth lived in the frozen regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. The 
woolly rhinoceros has been found in Europe only 

From the painting by Charles R. Knight which was presented to the Field Museum by 

Ernest R. Graham 


@ by the Field Museum 


From a life-size group in the Field Museum; it is the work of Frederick Blaschke 

The Rhodesian skull, found in the Broken Hill Mine, north- 
ern Rhodesia, South Africa, June 17, 1921, is in some respects 
an exaggerated form of the Neanderthal, and indicates that such 
Neanderthaloid forms lived in Africa, perhaps until fairly late. 

© by the American Museum of Nuturul History 


In the immediate background is the famous cavern of Le Moustier. which gives its name to the 

culture of the Neanderthals (Mousterian) 

Drawn under the direction of Henry Fairfield Osbom by Charles R. Knight for the Hall of 
the Age of Man in the American Museum of Natural History; reproduced by special permission 



The aboriginal Australian, as evidenced by the Talgai skull 
found in Queensland, Australia, with the bones of a primitive 
dog and giant extinct kangaroo, was more or less of Neander- 
thaloid form. However, the living Australian of the pure type, 
unmixed with the Papuan and derived from the aboriginal form, 
is, except in color, close to the white man with modernized 
Neanderthal physical characteristics. The body is often exten- 
sively covered with hair, and the features of the face are dis- 
tinctly those of the White Race, 
although of a primitive form. 
The Pre-Dravidians of India and 
the Wadjak men of Java were 
of the same stock as the aborigi- 
nal Australian who came to that 
part of the world from the di- 
rection of Asia Minor. 

One of the skulls found in a 
cave on a steep, wooded moun- 
tainside, in the district of Spy, 
province of Namur, Belgium, in 
August, 1879, skulls found at 
Krapina, a rock shelter near 
Zagreb, in northern Croatia, and 
others discovered in Moravia 
and elsewhere, show modification 
from the Neanderthal toward 
modern man. The Aurignacian 

. _-, 1 r 11 i This restoration in the American Museum 

man in LurOpe, Who followed of Natural History was made by Dr. James 

1111 • Howard McGregor and is modeled on a re- 

the Neanderthal and was evi- stored sku11 

dently of a transitional form, gradually changed into the 
Grimaldi, Brno (or Briinn, or Combe-Capelle), and the Cro- 
Magnon, all of which are similar and resemble the Littoral type 
of Deniker and the Nordic Race. 

The Cro-Magnon had a high culture in chipped stone, bone, 
and other hard materials, and a highly realistic animal art. 
Aurignacian man lived from about 25,000 to 15,000 years ago 
when the glaciers had receded to an area between St. Johnsbury, 
Vermont, and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Pomerania and Eslav 
(Scania) in northern Europe, and Zurich and the Buhl period 


Homo sapiens 


in the Alps. The Cro-Magnon lived not later than 9000 B.C., 
following the Wiirm period in the Alps, when the ice had receded 
beyond Cochrane in Ontario, Canada, and the Fenno-Scandi- 
navian moraines in northern Europe. 

Causes for Man's Spread Over the Earth 

As the climate gradually changed from the glacial cold 
toward modern heat, man spread far and wide, and the animal 
life that was jj iuntecTT changed from the ponderous mammoth and 
rhinoceros to horses, oxen, and elks, and as time went on these 
were replaced with deer and other modern forms. These 
smaller and more active quarries necessitated greater activity in 
the chase, and the heavy, lumbering form of the Neanderthal 
changed toward that of modern man and gained in grace and 

The great forests of the Asiatic plateaus, and especially the 
Iranian plateau in its broadest sense, attracted man. The Iranian 
plateau stretches from India into Persia, for a distance of about 
1000 miles, and during the moist glacial epoch was a region rich, 
well watered, and park-like in its flora, filled with forests of 
fruits and nuts of many kinds. Its climate was semitropical 
and it was the original home of the apricot, fig, peach, and 
orange whence they were taken to Italy by the Romans. Here 
the grape grew luxuriously and the wild olive was domesticated, 
improved, and transformed. Oaks, walnuts, chestnuts, and a 
great variety of smaller trees furnished abundance of nuts. The 
forests teemed with game, the open glades favored agriculture, 
and grain may have originated here. 

The Asiatic plateaus became higher and drier and the aridity 
caused the denudation of the forests on their summits, and the 
inhabitants therefore moved away in all directions. The earliest 
known group to move from the bulk of humanity followed the 
lines of leas t resistanc e through India and eventually became the 
aborigines of Australia. The domestication of animals had al- 
ready started, at least the domestication of the dog, and the 
Australian carried his dog with him as he followed the game 
through the forests away from the arid plateaus. 

Many other peoples moved from the plateaus to other parts 
of Asia; later others moved into Africa, and still later others 


© by the American Museum of Natural History 


In the cave of Font-de-Gaume, Dordogne, France 

Drawn under the direction of Henry Fairfield Osborn by Charles R. Knight for the Hall of 
the Age of Man in the American Museum of Natural History; reproduced by special permission 

into Europe. The great masses of developing agriculturists 
settled in the fertile valleys of Asia, Africa, and Europe. Thus 
the valleys of the Yang Tse Kiang and the Hoang Ho of China, 
the Brahmapootra, the Indus, and the Ganges of India, the 
Tigris and the Euphrates of Asia Minor, the Nile and the Great 
Lakes of Africa, the lakes of Italy and Switzerland, the Danube 
and the Rhine, the Rhone, the Garonne, the Seine, and the 
Somme of Europe, became the homes of settled communities. 

Climatic Influences 

During the Magdalenian period, following the Aurignacian, 
the climate in Europe was subarctic, and this continued decreas- 
ingly into the Azilian period when the Baltic was an ice lake. 
About 5000 B.C. the climate in Europe became distinctly warm 
and dry, the oak and kindred trees succeeded the hazel, birch, 
and pine. When the Bronze Age appeared the climate was 
warm and moist, subsequently becoming cooler during the Iron 
Age and the historic period. 

The extremes of the Ice Age may have been a great factor 
in the evolution of man through stresses and strains, physical 
and mental; the dry, warm period following the Ice Age may 
have been the basis for the flowering of an early civilization, 
which the cooler modern period is carrying on to greater 



















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Summary of the Chapter 

We have shown in this chapter that man rose from the 
Neanderthal stage in Europe and afterward spread over the 
world, probably ranging over the Iranian plateau in a later 
period, from whence, as the location became higher and drier, 
he probably spread away from the plateau, and as he settled in 
the valleys and fertile regions, developed agriculture and other 
cultures of civilization. Some agriculture, with the domestica- 
tion of the dog and other animals, may have started on the 
Iranian plateau, but the Australian left that region with only 
the dog as his domestic animal. The earliest civilization of the 
world was perfected under the influence of the Mediterranean 
Race and was spread over Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete, and 
Greece by the Semitic, Hamitic, and Mediterranean races. 

Man's ascent is traced through the earlier forms, as the 
temperature changed in Asia and Europe from a warm, tropical 
climate to the Ice Age, then to a warmer period and finally to 
the slightly cooler one of the present time. The effect of the 
bitter cold and subsequent warmth is important in connection 
with the development of man and his civilization. 




Brain Development and Its Significance 

OF ALL the attributes of man the evolution of the brain is 
the most marvelous. The differences in the brain are 
noteworthy in relation to individual characteristics and the 
sequence of forms in evolution. A few words as to the anatomy 
of the brain and its functions will help to make clear the differ- 
ences in men and the differences between man and lower forms. 

The brain in man is chiefly the cerebrum which has two 
hemispheres, right and left, and almost fills the cranium. The 
frontal lobes of the brain are behind the forehead and the 
occipital lobes are at the back of the head. The temporal lobes 
are on the sides and extend forward in the regions of the 

The parietal lobes are at the middle of the top of the head 
and receive all touch sensations and send out all motions to the 
body; the hind part of the occipital lobe is the area where sight 
is received; the upper part of the temporal lobes is the area 
of hearing; the eye and speech movements are controlled in the 
lower part of the frontal lobes. The remainder of the brain 
is filled with the silent areas that function in the association of 
the senses and ideas. 

Development of Association Areas 

There are two great association areas. One is in that part 
of the brain where the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes 
join; it links touch, vision, and hearing preliminary to any vol- 
untary response in either speech or action. The other asso- 
ciation area is in the upper part of the frontal lobe behind the 
forehead; its functions are somewhat obscure but pertain to 





Exact shape of the brain as traced inside the skull 

temperament, mentality, emotions, the higher psychic functions, 
the esthetic, reasoning, will power, and self-control — it controls 
behavior and conduct. 

The two great association areas in man are larger and the 
convolutions more elaborate than in the higher apes, and are 

most elaborate in the 
White Race. In lower 
forms of life the olfac- 
tory apparatus of the 
brain is the largest and 
most complex, but in 
man it has been sup- 
pressed and almost ob- 
literated, so that its 
parts are difficult to find 
and can only be re- 
vealed by a specialist. 
As the stages of rising 
forms proceed in evolution, the areas for sight, sound, and gen- 
eral sense increase in size, until in the lower primates, as in the 
lemur, the brain, although simple and smooth, has a relatively 
small although extensive olfactory apparatus. 

The brain of the tarsier has the olfactory apparatus greatly 
reduced and vision elaborated, and in the monkeys vision and 
touch become dominant. In the higher apes the brain resembles 
the human brain, but the speech areas are feebly developed; the 
association areas, although larger than in the monkeys, where 
they are hardly present at all, are poorly developed and quite 
restricted in comparison with man. 

The development in man of the great association areas must 
have been preceded by a great increase in the reception areas for 
sight, touch, and hearing, especially in connection with speech; 
we see a great development of these areas in Neanderthal man, 
and an elaboration of the association areas in modern man be- 
yond anything heretofore produced. 

Factors Which Determined the Primates 

The two great factors which determined the rise of the pri- 
mates above other mammals and of man above other primates 


were: First, emancipation from bondage to the sense of smell, 
and the development of vision, touch, and, to a less extent, hear- 
ing. These three senses, being associated with life in the trees, 
gradually became dominant; then man came to earth, assumed 
the erect posture, developed the opposable thumb,* binocular 
vision, and the power of speech. Second, the correlation of the 
senses and their co-operation in motor activities, especially in 
speech, caused an elaboration of the association areas, which 
reached their climax in the White Race and represent the de- 
velopment of skill and intelligence. 

Binocular Vision of Great Value 

The effect of binocular vision on the development of the brain 
in man has never been sufficiently stressed. Both eyes look for- 
ward and the double vision gives a stereoscopic image which 
shows depth as well as length and breadth, and distance as well as 
size. The use of this mental image increased man's ability to 
compute. An animal with one eye on each side of the head sees 
with only one eye at a time, as the attention cannot be focused 
two ways at once ; therefore, there is not much sense of depth, but 
only a plane picture, and the calculation of distance is difficult. 
This may be well understood when a cow with apparent delibera- 
tion walks into the car you are driving, for although the cow 
appears to be looking at the car, her attention is focused in the 
opposite direction. 

Not only did binocular vision have a great deal to do with 
the wonderful development of the brain of early man, but it 
greatly aided in the protection of his body against the varied 
and vicious animals with which he had to contend and gave him 
a great advantage over them. The skill of man in practicing 
surgery and in developing art, and the transformation of the 
brain through mathematics and engineering skill by the increase 
in the computative faculties are a few of the results of binocular 
vision. The modern binocular microscope has multiplied the 
human eye many times and greatly added to the value of man's 
research. The limit to which the mind will ultimately reach is 

Curved toward the fingers for more refined handling and manipulation. 


Facial Expression 

Along with the evolution of the br?in the facial muscles de- 
veloped more and more, reflecting the mind to the beholder. 
The expression of the emotions by the movements of the face 
is of considerable importance in the ascent of man, and plays 
a part in the economy of modern life. 

The facial expression and the development of the facial 
muscles in the anthropoids is less than in man, in the monkeys 
much less, and in the tarsioids and lemurs still less. The lower 
the scale of evolution the less the elaboration of the facial 
musculature. In the lower vertebrates facial musculature is of 
very slight extension, but in mammals it attains a unique de- 
velopment and in man it reaches its highest expression. In 
lower forms it is attached to the deep muscles and does not move 
the skin to any great extent, but in higher forms it divides into 
two parts, superficial and deep, and in the anthropoids the super- 
ficial part which moves the skin spreads over the whole face and 
head. In man there has been a regression in the development 
of the muscles that move the scalp and ear, so that it is difficult 
for some and impossible for others to move either. This may 
be cultivated by effort and practice before a mirror, which is 
evidence that the mechanism that enables other animals to move 
their ears and scalp is present in man, though only slightly 

In the lower monkeys, facial expression is very slight; in 
the apes it is grimace-like, although there is considerable range 
of expression in the gorilla and chimpanzee, which most closely 
resemble man in many structures. Their facial muscles move 
in groups and there is but slight differentiation of movement by 
individual muscles. In a modified degree this is so also with 
some men. There are occasional individuals who cannot con- 
tract the brows and forehead without shutting the eyes as is the 
case in the apes. Finely graded facial expression has evolved 
from a lower stage. When the muscles are more highly differ- 
entiated the most vivid facial expression is noted. 

With maturing experience under the influence of education 
the individual learns to control facial expression and thus con- 
ceal his emotions. Language is said to have been created to 


conceal thought, and facial expression may have been created to 
conceal emotion. As a result, the reading of the face of an adult 
becomes difficult, except in the aged where the lines have become 
fixed and the characteristics may be plainly displayed. 

Within the life of an individual facial expression may be- 
come more or less fixed. Continued mental concentration and 
deeply felt experiences repeatedly brought to memory set the 
mimetic musculature into contraction. Thinking and feeling 
along noble lines are reflected in the harmonious play of facial 
expression which may attain admirable beauty. Thus lasting 
traits may finally be engraved on the human face. 

Racial Differences in Expression 

Racial differences in expression are more often noted than 
are many other racial characteristics. In the White Race we no- 
tice a great range of varied expressions with many modulations, 
especially in the upper facial 
muscles and about the mouth. A 

slight muscle contraction induced \ 

by complex mental associations Ik Ik 

may produce a gentle smile, 
stronger stimuli a more marked 
smile, and when the impulse is 
deepened the mouth is opened 
and the smile turns into a hearty 
laugh. These finely modulated 
expressions of the White Race 
denote a responsive neuro- 
mechanism, well differentiated 

i i . • i . , • Fig. 26— LAUGHING NEGRO 

muscles, and thin, elastic skin. 

Variations occur in the White Race, and the great differentiation 
of the muscles about the eyes and over the nose add greatly to 
the individuality of the expression in different persons. 

The less-differentiated, coarse bundles of facial muscles, such 
as are found in the Black Race, as well as the great thickness of 
the lips and skin, make this finer mechanism improbable, and 
there is a marked difference in facial expression from that of the 
White Race. The neuro-muscular mechanism in the Black Race 
is less controlled, and when the nerve impulses, not so finely 


graded as in the White Race, reach the mimetic muscles, the 
latter are set into sudden, strong contractions of a primitive 
type. The bulky lips are pulled upward and outward, the large 
white teeth are exposed in contrast with the black face, and in- 
stead of a graded smile or laugh we notice the broad grin char- 
acteristic of the Black Race. The different tone color of the 
voice adds to the grinning face and the combination becomes 
more characteristic. 

The Yellow-Brown expression is quite different from that of 
the other two races and is equally characteristic. The face 
seems often to have a studied repose, a controlled sensibility, 
and a reserve. When this race responds with happy outbursts 
it is more like controlled smiling than like boisterous laughter. 

The American Indian is noted for his stolid expression. 
The strong tonus of the muscles has molded his face and gradu- 
ally brought out its characteristic strength. 

The Eskimos are more spontaneous, and their happy faces 
show their good humor, despite their hard struggle against the 
rigors of cold in the far north. 

The Polynesians, who resemble both the Black and the White 
races, but more the W T hite than the Black, show a facial expres- 
sion similar to that of the White; all who are acquainted with 
the Hawaiians will not soon forget their intelligent, pleasing, 
ever charming, and always kindly faces. 

The Cause of the Variety of Expression 

The variety of expression in the White Race is remarkable, 
and is represented by many small and by some minute muscles. 
The muscle that lifts the brows and wrinkles the forehead trans- 
versely is the muscle of surprise. The muscle that draws the 
brows together and wrinkles the center of the forehead in a 
vertical manner is the frowning muscle. The muscle that raises 
the corner of the mouth and the nostril is the snarling muscle, 
the muscle of anger. The muscle that closes the eye is the wink- 
ing muscle, and some people find it difficult to wink one eye 
without letting the other eye know anything about it. 

The smiling muscle, the risorius, draws the corner of t\ e 
mouth slightly upward and outward, and starts a dimple in the 
cheek, which may be deepened into a line when the laughing 


muscle comes into play, and if the grinning muscle is added to 
these there appears the "smile that won't come off." 

When sadness comes to man, the smiling muscles become 
those of sorrow and the corners of the mouth are lowered. Sor- 
row is akin to joy and one may weep with gladness and laugh 
with sadness. When grief is intensified these muscles all contract 
with great force and a lugubrious face is the result. 

One muscle of the face is said to represent twenty-one dif- 
ferent emotions, but that muscle is quite elaborate and is not 
only made up of many parts, but these parts are varied in size, 
texture, and attachment. This muscle, called the quadratus 
labii superioris et alaeque nasi, depresses the tip of the nose, 
elevates the upper lip, flares the nostril, deepens the naso-labial 
groove in the upper lip, draws the tissues of the chin upward 
and backward and the corner of the mouth in the same direction. 
It expresses disgust, contempt, disdain, indignation, scorn, guilt, 
a snarl, a sneer, defiance, menace, anger, rage, hatred, bitterness, 
pride, sadness, sorrow, grief, gladness, happiness, and joy. 

That one small muscle group can express so many emotions 
is almost inconceivable, but upon intimate analysis of the emo- 
tions it is seen that they are related or proceed the one from the 
other in natural sequence. The experience of a race may be 
read in their faces largely through the activities of this muscle. 

A Characteristic Nose 

The Jews have acquired a predominantly large and promi- 
nent nose. The same sort of nose is a characteristic of the 
Dinaric Race, which came from the Alpine Race, and is one of 
the outstanding types in southeastern Europe today. This large, 
prominent nose sometimes has the tip prolonged downward so 
that the direction of the nostrils is changed. The depression 
of the tip increases the prominence of the nose, and adds to its 
apparent size. This is not always well marked, but it is not 
infrequent, and is more emphatic in some persons than in others. 
Having become a recognizable feature, it has been seized by 
sexual selection. Those having this type of nose who marry 
each other may intensify a natural endowment and transmit its 
intensity to their offspring. The feature finally becomes fixed 
and is as much an inheritance as any other characteristic. 



A LTHOUGH as yet we are unacquainted with the exact steps 
^/\_ in the ascent of man, we have at least suggestive evidence 
that man rose later than the other primates, and in some re- 
spects is more primitive. He is not so far advanced in the 
detailed evolution of some of his structures, but more advanced 
in general, and especially in his intellectual ascent. 

The chief processes in the differentiation of man (discussed 
in Chapter VI) have been those of evolution, and of the forma- 
tion of races. The two factors in evolution have been natural 
variation and natural selection, and the three factors most potent 
in the formation of races have been isolation, adaptation, and 

The Effect of Mutations on Race 

In the evolution of man the same fundamental principles are 
involved as in the evolution of other organisms, although in man 
they are not always so definite and clear-cut in their action. 
Inheritance and variation, fluctuations, Mendelian combinations, 
and mutations * occur in the human kind today, as well as in 
plants and animals. This is not only true of the body, but also 
of the mind. Mutations result in the survival of the fit character 
only, and this usually results in the survival of the person who 
has the fit character. 

In the progress of evolution many forms are eliminated, 
some by becoming unfit by over-development of some special 
structure (as the Irish Deer whose antlers caused its extermina- 
tion), others by catastrophic action such as took place in the Ice 
Age, and others in other ways. 

* See "Heredity and Variation" in this Scries. 




The Meaning of Changes in Man's Structure 

Prog ress in evolution moves by a process of increa&ed-diiLer- 
errtiiUie n and -irrtegsa&on. This process leads to very differen t 
ends, as shown by the various modes of locomotion, by the dis- 
cs by the Field Museum 


This great deer was a native of western Europe. It was exterminated by man during the 

fourteenth century. Fossil remains are found abundantly in the peat bogs of Ireland and from 

this fact it has received its name. Some individuals measured ten feet from the top of the 

skull to the ground. Antlers having a spread of twelve feet have been found. 

From the painting by Charles R. Knight which was presented to the Field Museum by 

Ernest R. Graham 

similarity of weapons of offense and defense, and in a multitude 
of other ways. In man it has led to increased cranial and in- 
tellectual capacity, to greater control over environment and 
greater freedom, and to enlarged and complex social units, etc. 

In man there have been great changes in the body since the 
last Neanderthal of some 30,000 years ago, especially in the 
brain. The end of evolution in the brain is not yet in sight, in 
spite of what any one may say about the quality of the Cro- 
Magnon art or the superiority of the Greek state and manhood. 

With the enlargement of the cranium and the increased 
activity of the brain, there came a gradual reduction in the size 
of the face, of the nose, and in the concurrent olfactory mecha- 


nism in the brain. The grinding of grain and the cooking of 
meats and herbs caused a cessation of the eating of tough foods 
with the consequence that the teeth and their sockets became 
smaller in size. The large teeth and sockets of Neanderthal 
man gave his chin a receding appearance; as the size of the teeth 
and their sockets reduced, this receding chin changed to the 
prominent chin of modern man. The huge shoulders of Nean- 
derthal man gave place to more reduced ones; the almost rigid 
thumb became flexible, and great skill in multiple movements of 
the hands and arms resulted. Resistance to disease has been 
increased by the elimination of the more susceptible; degenera- 
tive conditions appear in the hair, teeth, and toes, and probably 
also in the appendix which often atrophies and may disappear 
without operation. 

• =0^ 




Resemblances, Differences, and Relations 

Variability is one of the most potent factors in man's 
ascent. We recognize that no two people are exactly alike 
in mind or body. Even "identical" twins from the same ovum 
can be recognized by those who know them well. In each group 
of people there are those who resemble each other, and in each 
family some are more alike than are others. When those who 
are alike become numerous in a community they are called a 
type. The larger the group of people the more numerous the 
types. If one of these types becomes segregated it may maintain 
itself, and thus by isolation become a new group. After it has 
spread over a large territory and has become fixed in charac- 
teristics it is called a race. This process is repeated so that 
various types again appear in the race, and thus races become 
continuously subdivided. Races have come and races have gone, 
groups have met and fused to produce still other races — so that 
it is difficult to classify them all. 

- At present, anthropologists recognize three great races of 
man, the constituent individuals of which have many points of 
resemblance and many physical characteristics in common. These 
three great races have occupied the three continents of the Old 
World for longer or shorter periods, and have also moved over 
into the New World where they are mingling and mixing today. 
These three races have been called the White, the Yellow-Brown, 
and the Black, because the color of the skin is the most obvious 
and easily discernible physical characteristic. 

Races and Species 

As the term race seems to fit those three great groups of 
man we may look farther into their relation with other forms 



that are close to them in physical characteristics. The following 
method of classification is used to make clear the relations. A 
European would be classed as: 

Race : White 

Sub-species : Sapiens 

Species: Homo 

Genus : Hominidae 

Sub-Order : Anthropoidea 
Order : Primates 
Class : Mammalia 

Man is the only member of the genus Hominidae, and mod- 
ern man (Homo sapiens), the only living member of the species 
Homo. Earlier forms of man are called Homo aurignacensis, 
Homo neanderthalensis y Homo rhodesiensis, and other names. 

The definition of species has never been made clear, and a 
perfect definition seems impossible. A species is a form that 
is distinct in its anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, chemical, and 
psychic characteristics, does not grade freely into any other 
group, does not in most cases produce perfectly fecund offspring 
with those outside of the species, and is a persistent as well as 
a large organic unit. When these criteria are applied to man 
there is but one species discernible. All races breed freely, with 
subsequent fecundity, and are changeable in the direction of other 
groups under altered conditions. Therefore no group of man 
is a species but a variety, and these groups are justly and intel- 
ligibly called races. 

The Development of Races 

The formation of races in any large geographic group is 
more or less continuous, and varies with environment and other 
conditions, such as isolation, habits, inbreeding, and mixed breed- 
ing. Until the Mousterian period there is no material evidence 
of distinct races, but in the Aurignacian time, after Neanderthal 
man had become farther evolved, the distinction became more 
apparent, and several distinct lines, such as the Grimaldi, the 
Brno or Combe Capelle, and eventually about 10,000 B.C. the 
Cro-Magnon, had realized their differentiation. Some other 
forms doubtless became differentiated and perished, and no mod- 


ern representatives of them survive. Later there developed many 
forms which make up the component elements of the three great 
races of today: the Alpines, the Nordics, the Mediterraneans, 
and the Hamitics of the White Race, the Mongoloids, the Ameri- 
can Indians, and the Malays of the Yellow-Brown Race, and the 
Negroes, the Negrillos, and the Negritos of the Black Race. 
Other sub-races have developed, and many mixed races have been 
formed by the union of two or more of the other races. 

Effect of Climatic and Geographic Conditions 

After isolation, adaptations occur from climatic and geo- 
graphic conditions, such as p igmenta tion, nose fo rm, and stature. 
Pigmentation is variable, and those races with greater pigmenta- 
tion are more able to sustain the intense solar heat of tropical P^npc 
regions because they are protected from the too violent action 
of ultra-violet and infra-red rays of the sun. They become 
healthier, live longer, and have more children. The coloration 
may be intensified by sexual selection if the darker colored are 
more fit and are selected in marriag e. Ultimately those with 
little pigmentation die out, and, through the survival of the 
fittest, those with greater pigmentation increase in number. The 
same process takes place in a reverse order in a cold, moist, 
cloudy climate, where the least pigment is needed to secure the 
benefits from the actinic rays of the sun, either ultra-violet or 
infra-red. Depigmentation is as important in these climates as is 
increased pigmentation in the tropics. uV\\? 

The nose form varies under different climatic conditions. 
The broad nose with wide-open, flaring nostrils is associated with 
a hot, moist climate; the narrow nose with pinched nostrils, with 
a cold, dry climate; and the intermediate forms with hot, dry, 
and with cold, moist climates. Thus we find the Australians with 
a broad nose and the Europeans with a narrow nose, yet both 
were derived far back from the broad-nosed Neanderthal man. 
The nose becomes altered by selection in different environments. 

In general, the stature tends to be taller in temperate cli- 
mates and smaller in the torrid and arctic. The Patagonians 
and the Scots are both tall. The studies of Hrdlicka and Bean 
of Old Americans, those whose ancestors have lived here for 
three or more generations, and of Old Virginians of the same 




From a habitat group in the American Museum of Natural History 

status, show that, as a whole, these people are taller than any 
other in the world. 

The Negrillos and Negritos are pigmies in tropic forests, 
and the Eskimos, Lapps, and Siberians are mostly smaller than 
the peoples in the adjacent temperate zones. These people 
represent adaptation through specialization as the result of selec- 
tion through variability, and not through degeneration. In their 
present physical condition they are more able to cope with their 
environment than they would be otherwise. During isolation, 
when no extraneous influences come in that might check the 
change, characteristics become intensified by inbreeding. 

The Blending of Races 

Following isolation and the formation of a new race, when 
one group enlarges and spreads from its original location it may 
meet another group which has become changed in another direc- 
tion, and by crossing they become mixed races. There are far 
more mixed than pure races in the world today, because iso- 


lation is almost a thing of the past. Wherever people go they 
mingle and interbreed; therefore as traffic increases to all parts 
of the earth and all peoples come to know each other, the peoples 
of the world will no doubt become more and more hybridized. 

When races come into intimate contact and intermarry, there 
may, at first, be a partial return to one or the other of the parent 
stocks. In some cases there is a segregation of some characters 
which are very different from each other, but in the near future 
there will begin a progressive blending to form a more or less 
intermediate type. When one group is more numerous than an- 
other the larger may submerge the smaller. In a large country, 
on the other hand, there will in time be formed a nation which 
will advance toward uniformity in language, habits, and, if im- 
migration is not great, in physical resemblance. 

Precisely this is taking place today in every large nation. 
Each nation is the result of the merging of many groups of peo- 
ple of varied racial characteristics, but each new group is blend- 
ing into a type of its own, as can be seen in the Spanish, the French, 
the Italian, the German, the English, and even in the American. 
Each of these races is in the process of being born, and would prob- 
ably integrate into a new secondary race if there were no further 
material accretions from the outside for several millenniums. 

Distinguishing Race Characteristics 

The characteristics that distinguish human races are some- 
times correlated and at other times not harmonious, as black 
hair with blue eyes, or long head with broad face. The chief 
physical differences which should be studied are: hair, eye, and 
skin color; hair form, stature, sitting height, and the relative 
lengths of the long bones; the width of the shoulders and hips, 
and the relative width of the hands and feet; also the charac- 
teristics of the cranium, face, nose, eyes, ears, and teeth (es- 
pecially the incisors). The chief chemical differences are found 
in the blood. The chief functional differences are in the pulse, 
temperature, and the eruption of the teeth. The mental differ- 
ences are chiefly sensory and psychic. Pathologic differences 
are those of immunity and of demography.* Since the patho- 

* Demography, a statistical study of people, as to births, marriages, deaths, 
health, etc. 


logic conditions relate to survival or elimination, they are among 
the basic factors in human evolution; some of the well recog- 
nized conditions are certain diseases of children in the Negro, 
the increase of mental diseases in the White Race, and the 
peculiar psychoses of the Malays as exemplified in "running 

These physical, chemical, functional, and pathologic differ- 
ences are associated with astonishing similarities or identities in 
all the racial groups of man. This points strongly to a common 
derivation for all the existing varieties of man. 

Basic Physical Differences 

We will now present a few of the most important differences 
in man, although we can only give a brief analysis of each. 

Hair. The hair of man may be plentiful or scant over the 
body, it may be slightly or heavily pigmented, it may be straight 
or exceedingly curly or kinky, and it may be round, elliptical, or 
flat in cross section. When the hair is scant it is because of a 
condition called glabrous. Except on the head, this condition is 
found, more or less, in all Yellow-Brown peoples. When the 
hair is heavy the condition is called hirsute. This occurs more 
or less heavily over the entire body in White people living in the 
region extending from near the eastern Baltic over a broad space 
of the earth through Persia and India to Australia; it is es- 
pecially noticeable among the aboriginal Australians. The hair 
may be devoid of pigment as in the albino or in the white hair 
of age; there may be the flaxen or golden hair of the true 
Nordic Race, at one extreme; or there may be the absolutely 
black hair of the Semitic Race at the other extreme. The hair 
may be kinky (ulotrichous) as in the Negro, wavy (cymotrichous) 
as in the White Race, or straight (leiotrichous) as in the Yellow- 
Brown. Observed in cross section, hair of the kinky type is 
flat, hair of the wavy type is elliptical, and hair of the straight 
type is round (Fig. 29). The characteristics of the hair are 
perhaps of greater importance in the differentiation of the races 
than are the characteristics of any other part of the body. 

Skin. The color of the skin is the most easily recognizable 
and understood physical characteristic, and it is probably used 
more than any other in describing the differences which are ob- 
vious in the three great outstanding races. 



Eyes. The color of the iris is apparently One of the most 
characteristic and stable differences in man. Blue, as in the true 

Nordic Race, is at one 
extreme, and black, as in 
the Negro, is at the other. 
There are minor differ- 
ences in the eyes, such as 




A, the wavy hair of the White Race; B, the straight the rounded Oval Or the 
hair of the Yellow-Brown Race; C, the kinky hair of IUUHUCU, UVdl, ur U1C 

the Black Race slit-like opening of the 

lids, the Mongolian fold (a fold of skin covering the inner angle 
of the eye), the distance between the eyes, many variations in the 
size of the eyeball, the amount of white shown around the iris, 
and variations in pigmentation such as one blue and one brown 
eye or sectors of one color or another. 

Stature, Stature is extremely variable, yet there are some 
peoples who have one extreme and others another, as in the 
dwarf Pigmies, or the Negrillos of Africa, and the giant Pata- 
gonians of South America. Stature is used in the differentiation 
of races. The mean or average height is about five feet, five 
inches; therefore the 
medium stature would be 
from five feet, three 
inches to five feet, seven 
inches, the small or short 
below five feet, three 
inches, and the tall above 
five feet, seven inches. 
The Pigmies are below 
five feet, three inches and 
the Patagonian giants 
are above six feet. 

Sitting height. This 
is better expressed in 
terms of its relation to 
the stature, or as it is 
called, the sitting-height 
index. This is usually 
about 50 percent, or an index of 50, except in the Negro. In the 
Negrillo it is nearer 55, in the Mongoloid between 53 and 55, 

The tall man is five feet eight inches 


and in the White between 51 and 53. The sitting-height index 
is higher in small people and lower in tall people. It is higher 
in the young and decreases as development progresses to the 
adult; it is less in men than in women. For these reasons the 
index is useful in the classification of groups of peoples. 

Long bones. The long bones are useful in classifying the 
living, because in the Negro, in males, and in the adult, the bones 
of the lower arm and leg are relatively longer than those of the 
upper arm and leg, whereas in the White Race, in women, and 
in children the opposite is true. The long bones of a skeleton 
may be useful in calculating the stature and in showing other 
conditions of the person when he was alive. 

Widths of the body parts. The widths of the bones, of the 
shoulders, of the hips, of the hands, and of the feet in relation 
to the stature or to the lengths of the bones is of much value in 
determining the types of men, as there are both slender and 
stocky types which have various other different characteristics, 
such as those which relate to* immunity and susceptibility to dis- 
ease, to length of life, and to death rate at different ages. 

The Head. The head is made up of the cranium and face, 
and the skull is made up of the cranial and facial bones. The 
length and breadth of the cranium are used to find the cephalic 
index, which is the breadth in terms of the length with the latter 
equal to 100. An index below 75 is called dolichocephalic (or 
narrow-headed), from 75 to 80 is mesocephalic (or medium- 
headed), and above 80 is brachycephalic (or broad-headed). 
The index taken on the bony cranium is called the cranial index. 
The cephalic index is used in the differentiation of races, but as 
there are about twenty factors which influence the shape of the 
cranium, the index has not proved as useful as had been expected. 
The most narrow-headed people are the Eskimo and Negro, 
and the most broad-headed the Alpine and Mongoloid. The 
facial index is also used, but is no more reliable than the cephalic 
index as an indicator of race. Both indexes may be helpful in 
connection with other physical characteristics. 

Nose. The nasal index, which is the width of the nose in 
terms of the length with the latter equal to 100, is one of the 
most useful factors in differentiating the races. This may be 
taken on the skull or on the living. The index of the living is 


called leptorrhine (narrow-nosed) when the index is below 70, 
mesorrhine (medium-nosed) when between 70 and 80, and 
platyrrhine (broad-nosed) when above 80. 

Ears, The ears have been used less than they should be as 
racial criteria. The Negro ear is the smallest, and is irregular 
in contour, the Mongoloid ear is large and well formed, and the 
size of the White ear is in between. 

Teeth, The teeth also are useful in the differentiation of 
races and especially so with reference to the early forms of man, 
and in determining man's relation to the apes and monkeys. The 
shovel shape of the upper incisors in the American Indian are 
especially noteworthy; equally interesting is their absence in the 

Other physical differences. There are numerous other bony 
and fleshy differences that are important, such as the small spleen 
of the Negro, and the large spleen of the White, but many of 
these are not so important as those mentioned above and need 
not be given here. 

Basic Chemical Differences 

Types of blood, determined by physico-chemical means, are 
peculiar to different people, but are not used in determining race 
except in color or pigmentation. 

The odor of the body differs according to race. It is pungent 
in the Negro, acrid in the White, and varies in the Yellow- / 
Brown. The White man, for example, can usually detect the 
presence of a Negro of Yellow-Brown by the odor peculiar to 
his race. On the other hand, the Negro or Yellow-Brown can 
detect the odor peculiar to the White man. 

The great importance of fluids which are poured into the 
blood from many parts of the body cannot be minimized in 
relation to the development and health of the individual, but our 
present knowledge about them is so scant that it is of little value 
in differentiating races. The function of the thyroid gland is 
best known; it supplies the requisite amount of iodine to the 
system. Iodine is present in sea food, sea water, and probably 
to some extent in sea air; thus a greater amount of iodine is 
taken into the body at the seashore. As a characteristic effect 
of iodine in an adult person is to make him thin, people who 


live by or near the sea for a great length of time seem to become 
small and thin. As a result of many experiments it is thought 
that peoples of the interior in certain districts who have less 
iodine than those near the seashore may become broad and tall. 
From this fact we may infer that the Mediterranean Race is the 
product of the seashore and the Alpine Race of the continental 

Basic Functional Differences 

Pulse and Temperature. These two characteristics are more 
or less related and together with respiration they vary somewhat 
in the different races, but they are so bound up with other condi- 
tions that a medical treatise would have to be written to show 
their relations. 

Eruption of the Teeth. This is a most important condition 
both in relation to evolution and development and in relation 
to racial differences. The teeth are undergoing extinction in at 
least two ways: They are disappearing by coming in later and 
later and by decaying earlier and earlier, especially in the case of 
the canines and the third molars or wisdom teeth. Ultimately 
we may expect a time when they will not appear at all. In cer- 
tain races, as the Negro, American Indian, Alpine, Nordic, and 
especially the Australian, the teeth resemble those of the Nean- 
derthal more than those of the Mediterranean and other races. 
There are some teeth that come in earlier in some races than in 
others, but researches on this phase have not yet been well 
worked out. 

Basic Mental Differences 

Mental differences between the races are rather obscure. 
Psychoses, or abnormal mental conditions, are on the increase in 
the White Race more than in the others. This condition seems 
to be a concomitant of civilization; but as the diseases relate to 
pathology we will consider them in the next group. 

Basic Pathologic Differences 

Pathologic differences are affected by climate, habitat, ac- 
climatization, and many other factors which are bound up Avith 
medicine and are so extensive that only a few salient featjres 
may be mentioned here. 


Immunity. Certain people who have lived for many genera- 
tions or thousands of years in one climate acquire certain con- 
stitutions, or predispositions, that enable them to better survive 
under their living conditions than is one of diverse nature and 
accustomed to wholly different environmental conditions who at- 
tempts to dwell with them. There are also individual differences 
in immunity which are apparently more marked in a simple and 
specific way than the differences between races, although the lat- 
ter have not yet been studied in such a broad way that the dif- 
ferences have been recognized and clarified. However, when any 
people have been relocated in an environment utterly alien to that 
in which they have evolved and lived in for thousands of years 
they have almost invariably disappeared. This is true of the 
Aryans in India, although some may still be seen with dark skins 
and other alterations. The Negroes in the United States are 
much less dark than those in Africa, and are also supposed to 
have some immunity to throat disease, goiter, and affections of 
the spine, eye, ear, and nose. However, they have an almost 
alarming susceptibility to tuberculosis and venereal diseases, and 
their birth rate is diminishing more rapidly than their death rate. 
This declination is partly the result of disease, but the effect of 
the climate is also a factor. The reverse is true in Africa, but 
the death rate of Negroes in Africa is not greater than the death 
rate of Whites in Europe. 

The Whites are more susceptible than the other races to 
psychoses, to skin diseases, and probably to cancer and diseases 
of a similar nature. 

The Malays are susceptible to a peculiar condition called 
"running amok," in which they are suddenly taken with a wild 
desire to murder. Every Malay carries a large sword-like knife, 
and when he runs amok he draws it and slashes right and 
left until he has killed every one he can before he himself is 
killed. This is one of the erratic psychic manifestations of the 



IN the two preceding chapters we have outlined the ascent of 
man with especial stress upon the Neanderthal forms that 
lived all over Europe, with a single possible representative so 
far discovered in Africa and another in Asia; we have also given 
some of the methods of differentiation that have produced the 
races of man. We now take up the difficult but extremely inter- 
esting and instructive task of tracing the movements of man as 
he has wandered to and fro over the face of the earth. 

The mass of evidence points to Europe, or at least, to the 
western or warmer part of the Old World, as the region of 
man's origin. It was certainly his cradle, the location of his 
nursery, the region where his infancy and early childhood were 
passed. Western and southwestern Europe, with an extension to 
central Europe and around the Mediterranean, seem also to have 
been the earliest locations of the movements and the first spread- 
ings of man. During the last glacial invasion of Europe and 
the vicissitudes which followed, Neanderthal man became earlier 
than 18,000 B.C. greatly reduced in numbers, and, as his progeny, 
the early Aurignacians, developed gradually toward modern man 
in physique, they spread over wide territories. 

The latest discoveries in central Europe and Asia make it 
seem that while the Neanderthal type was declining in the West, 
portions of it had extended toward the East, and gradually 
developed into Aurignacian man, who, spreading once more to 
the West, re-occupied nearly all of the sites previously occupied 
by his forefathers; but he probably did not settle far south of 
the Mediterranean. 

From about the latter phases of the Aurignacian onward the 
White Race developed in Europe. Stocks similar to the upper 

Aurignacian peopled Asia, and from there went to America, 



while later modified streams spread over Malaysia. The 
Negroes developed as such in Africa, and in the form of the 
Negrito spread eastward into the southern borderland of Asia 
and into some of the Pacific Islands at an early date. The 
White Race spread early eastward and southeastward through 
Asia Minor and over the Iranian plateau, through the Caucasus 
and Persia, into India and thence into Ceylon. An earlier related 
strain, not far it would seem from the last Neanderthal men, 
spread through India, the Malay peninsula and the adjacent 
islands (at that time part of the mainland) to Australia and to 
other Pacific islands. This strain formed a substratum of a large 
south Pacific region and to this day retains numerous primitive 
characteristics that resemble the late Neanderthal and the Aurig- 
nacian man, especially those in the Australian Race who are 
unmixed with Papuans (the dark race of the South Pacific). 

Later movements of the Whites from the Mediterranean 
area took them into India, Asia Minor, and northern Africa to 
form the Dravidian-Hamitic and later the Semitic races, while 
those who remained in Europe or returned there gradually de- 
veloped into the Alpine, Mediterranean, and Nordic races. The 
old spread of the near Whites into India and Australia, and the 
subsequent spread of the Dravidian-Hamitic Race over Arabia, 
Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India, severed the connection between 
the Black Race in Africa, in India, and in the Pacific. 

This is a brief tracing in large lines of a few of the more 
important early spreads of man as apparent or most probable 
from our present knowledge, and we may now proceed to review 
their methods of moving about and give more of the details 
of some of their important movements. 

The Three Chief Forms of Dispersal 

There have been three chief forms of dispersal. First, by 
spreading movements of large numbers in a gradual overflow 
in one or more directions from a central over-populated location. 
Second, by invasion, or rapid thrust movements which may have 
continued and which were repeated at longer or shorter intervals, 
involving the conquering, control, and organizing of the popu- 
lation, often with a partial extermination. Third, by migration 
in individual or family groups. 


Reasons for Spreading 

There have been different reasons assigned for the natural 
spreading of people over the world at a time when great areas 
were without inhabitants. The primary causes of spreading 
were the natural increase of population, and a gradual widening 
of the inhabitable portion of land, although the quest for food 
was often an impulsive force. Pressure from without as well 
as from within the group sometimes also caused a spreading 
away from the home base. Sometimes the groups followed the 
animals of the forest which afforded their chief food supply; 
again as the cold increased, they moved to a more genial clime, 
or when the earth became warmer they followed the spread of 
increasing warmth with the recession of the ice. In any case, 
unless driven, they followed the line_s of least resistance or the 
best prospects. 

Dispersals by invasion have been sudden thrust movements 
by organized parties of peoples, which continued for a long 
period by continuous pressure or repeated thrusts, or for a short 
time if there was too great resistance or if the conquest was easy. 
The basis for such movements was nearly always gain, but the 
movements were caused by certain conditions that arose in the 
group. Sometimes there came a shortage of food, which may 
have been gradual, but which finally reached such an extreme 
that the people moved away. In doing this they came into con- 
tact with other people, whom they conquered, exterminated, and 
replaced or with whom they settled down either as overlords or 
as neighbors, intermarrying and living together. Sometimes the 
cause was greed for power or wealth, sometimes irritation from 
oppression, from insurrection, or from some other cause, and 
there may have been endemic diseases. 

Dispersal by migration takes the form of planned and regu- 
lated movements of individuals, families, or small groups. It 
may cause profound changes, as in the settlements of the Amer- 

It is not always easy to differentiate between the three 
methods of dispersal. Sometimes one changed to the other, and 
all three, or any two, may have combined. We shall now con- 
sider these movements in their order. 




Dispersal by Spreading 

fT^HE chief spreading movements were: i, The spread of 
£ Neanderthal man over habitable Europe and his further 
spread to the east around the Mediterranean; 2, The spread of 
the Australoid type until it reached Australia; 3, The spread of 
the Negro over Africa and eastward through Egypt, Arabia, and 
India to the Philippines, New Guinea, and the Malay Peninsula; 
4, The spread of the Aurignacian types over the Iranian plateau, 
northern Asia, and back to Europe, and also into India and the 
Pacific; 5, The spread of early Neolithic man from the Asiatic 
plateaus through Asia to America and also over Europe to Great 
Britain; 6, The spread of Neolithic man from the eastern 
Mediterranean to India and into the Pacific Islands, and also 
through Egypt and other parts of Africa, along the southern 
shores of the Mediterranean. 

The First Spreading Movement 

Neanderthal man seems first to have occupied western Europe 
and then to have spread to central Europe, around the Mediter- 
ranean, to the Caucasus, Asia Minor, and as far east as northern 
China. In the earlier period of his existence the climate was 
mild, affording an agreeable outdoor life. Although caves were 
sometimes utilized, nearly all of the earlier hearth sites were in 
the open or in rock shelters which afforded but little protection 
from the elements. As the late glacial return came on there is 
evidence some sought the greater seclusion of caves, but many 
wandered away to more genial climes. 

* The maps in this section were plotted by the author and show only the general 
drift and not the exact route. — Editor. 




The chief occupations of the Neanderthal were in the making 
of flints and in the chase of the animals which they utilized for 
food and clothing. As the cold came on there is evidence that 
the use of the skins of animals increased, because the scrapers 
for removing skins are much more numerous in the remains of 
occupation sites. Neanderthal man was a rover; this fact is 
attested by evidence of the repeated occupation of the same sites 


in France and Belgium after prolonged absences. He may have 
had summer resorts and winter resorts, but his absences extended 
over centuries rather than seasons. In warm spells, which were 
also of long duration, the Neanderthal man probably wore but 
little clothing. For thousands of years man's clothing in the 
cold seasons consisted of the skins of the animals which had been 
killed for food. 

The implements he used were of stone chipped for use as 
killers, cleaners, and skinners, but later the use of bone was de- 
veloped. At first the implements were crudely made, but after 



© by the American Museum of Natural History 


Resting from their exertions on the border of a beech forest on the southern shore of the 
Baltic. The chieftain stands in the center, and his son, wearing a necklace of bear claws, 
grasps a bow and arrow and holds in leash a wolf dog, ancestor of the modern sheep dog of 

northern France 

Drawn under the direction of Henry Fairfield O shorn by Charles R. Knight for the Hall of 
the Age of Matt in the American Museum of Natural History; reproduced by special permission 

a while man became more skillful and finely patterned imple- 
ments were manufactured. 

There were transition periods, if slow ones, between the 
Neanderthal man and the previous Acheulian forms, and between 
the Neanderthal man and the following Aurignacian forms. 
There is no sudden replacement of the one people by the other. 
The Mousterian period, when the Neanderthal lived in Europe, 
grades gradually from the previous Acheulian period to the fol- 
lowing Aurignacian period. 

The Second Spreading Movement 

The second great spreading movement was that of the Pre- 
Dravidians from western Asia into India, the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java, and Australia. These people were close to the 
Mousterian period of culture and the Neanderthal physical type. 
They were still more or less Neanderthaloid, modified somewhat 
toward modern man, but not as much as were the upper Aurig- 
nacians and Magdelenians. They retained some of the imple- 
ments of the Neanderthal combined with others of the later 
culture. They probably took with them the dog as a domesti- 
cated animal, and maybe the dingo, or native wild dog of the 
Australia of today is a descendant of these. Either the Aus- 




Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 

tralian left western Asia before the beginning of agriculture, or 
he lost the art; but he was there when the dog had been domesti- 
cated and hunting was at 
• its best with the fleet- 
footed denizens of the 
forest as game. 

The Third Spreading 

The third spreading 
period for us to consider 
is that of the Negro. 
His origin, though doubt- 
less from the same hu- 
man family as the other 
>*i»^rf. *-•:.:. -- races i s s till obscure. 

Fig. 34— THE DINGO, OR WILD DOG, OF XTT . r . . XT 

austraita We later find the JNe- 



grito in India, in the Malay Peninsula, and in some of the 
Pacific islands. The Negrito as well as the Negrillo is clearly 
of the same stock as the Negro in Africa, as is also the related 


form, the Melanesian, found farther in the Pacific. We must 
conclude that at one time these strains were connected through 
Arabia. This connection was then severed, and no trace of it is 
left, or has yet been found. 

The break in the Black Race line between Asia and Africa 
probably came when the Dravidian-Hamitics spread over south- 
ern India, and into the Pacific as the Indonesian. No remnants 
of the Black Race in pure form are to be found among living 
peoples between Africa on the one hand and southern India and 
the Malay Peninsula on the other, but we cannot now say what 
in the way of evidence the future may reveal. 

The reason for believing that the Negro originated in Africa 
rather than in Asia and that he spread from the former to the 
latter is that the bulk of the race is now found in Africa in spite 
of the fact that man other than the Negro has been moving 
into Africa for a longer time than into India. There are at 
present but few negroid peoples to be found in India, and in the 
Pacific islands, where they are not yet extinct, they are fast dis- 
appearing. If India had been their place of origin they should 
be there now in greater numbers than in Africa. 



The Fourth Spreading Movement 

The fourth great spreading movement occurred during the 
late Paleolithic era and was in another direction. In this move- 
ment man journeyed over the great plateaus of Siberia and 
Turkestan, and from there spread over northern Asia and into 
America. This spreading lasted for a long time, thousands of 
years, and was largely, it seems, of the nature of a gradual in- 
filtration from the plateaus as they became more and more arid. 
These people were hunters, and the great regions of forests 
helped them to maintain themselves as they moved ever onward 


while their numbers gradually increased. After they had peopled 
Mongolia and Siberia, groups carried on until they reached the 
extremes of northeast Asia. They crossed into Alaska, which 
could be seen in the distance, and spread over the Americas, 
becoming the American Indian. As time went on, these early 
hunters retained the distinctive characteristics of the Neander- 
thal man to a less and less degree, yet we find in America today 
rare individuals who bear strong resemblances to at least the 
latest Neanderthal people. 

The great Iranian plateau is of more than passing interest as 
the great source of some of the subsequent movements of man, 
and the routes through which he naturally drifted are fairly 
well known. This plateau is surrounded on three sides by water, 




and has natural passageways leading out of it. On the east it 
dips into India through the valleys of the Indus and the Ganges; 
on the south it has a passageway that leads across the valleys 
of the Tigris and the Euphrates through the "Fertile Crescent" 
(Breasted) over Arabia and into the Nile Valley; to the west is 
a natural gateway through the upper reaches of the Euphrates 
into Asia Minor, where armies went to and fro before and after 
Xenophon and his 10,000 explored it, and which is still a thor- 
oughfare for traffic in the East. In Asia Minor the route was 
walled in by mountain and sea and there were no byways. Three 
outlets presented themselves at the Aegean, one by sea to Greece, 
another across the Hellespont and around the Aegean into 
Greece or still farther northward into the Adriatic and Italy, 
and the third still farther northward to the valley of the Danube. 
No wonder Troy, situated at the meeting of the ways, became a 
city of importance. On the north of the Iranian plateau was a 
vast open way over the steppes and across the rivers of what is 
now Russia which led to the open plains of Hungary, to the 
fertile Valley of the Danube, and to central Europe. Through 
these ways, east, south, west, and north, probably in the order 
named, the peoples of the Iranian plateau moved out. Like their 
forefathers, the Neanderthals, they were hunters; they were tall, 
mostly long-headed, and of fairly robust build. 

These hunters from the Iranian plateau were instrumental 
in producing the Hamitic, Semitic, and Mediterranean races. 



Courtesy of the American Museum of 
Natural History 

The Hamitic type was apparently the first to be realized and 
spread to Egypt, over northern Africa, over southern India, as 
the Dravidian, and into south Africa where they mixed with the 

Bushmen and Hottentots and 
left their cattle culture there. 
When they moved up the Nile 
to the Great African Lakes they 
established the great dominion 
of the Pharaohs and came into 
intimate contact with the Ne- 
groes of the Sudan and Kordo- 
fan. They moved northwest 
and spread over north Africa, 
where they came again into con- 
tact with the Blacks north of the 

The Negroes occupied the 
central part of Africa and spread 
thence to the south, preceded by 
the related Bushmen and Hotten- 
tots, while the Negrillo peopled 
the heart of the equatorial jun- 
gles. The Hamitic and Semitic 
Whites from the north are mixed 
somewhat with the Bushmen and 
Negroes south of the Great 
African Lakes. The northern 
Hamitic branch apparently car- 
ried the Capsian * culture in its 
microlithic stage into Europe 
through Spain as a gateway. 
The spread of the Hamitic- 
Dravidian Race through India and into the Pacific as the latest 
part of the fourth movement deserves especial notice. The 
Dravidians spread over India, and must have come into contact 
with the previous inhabitants, the Negritos and Pre-Dravidians, 


* The Upper Paleolithic stone industry of north Africa is termed Capsian; 
when Lower Capsian culture was carried into western Europe, it was modified in 
character and is called Aurignacian. When the Upper Capsian culture migrated to 
Europe it developed into the culture phase known as Tardenoisian. 



or Australoids. They probably scattered them over India and 
some of the Pacific islands or carried them along as they went 
on their way. A few survivors of the Pre-Dravidians and 
Negritos may yet be found in the remote recesses of the Deccan * 
or in the northeastern section of India. Traces of them are also 
found along the northern coasts of India and in various Pacific 
islands. The Dravidians 
have occupied the Dec- 
can to this day in scat- 
tered masses as the 
largest element in south- 
ern India, although inter- 
mixed with their Aryan 
brothers, whom they 
now greatly resemble. 

The spread of the 
Dravidians and the 
Hamitic Race from area 
to area was not always 
accomplished quietly and 
peaceably. There were 
probably many invasions 
and thrust movements. 
The Semitic and Medi- 
terranean races probably 
developed in conjunction 
with the Hamitic Race about the eastern end of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and in Mesopotamia. According to all indications 
the Kelts, Alpines, and Nordics developed where they were 
found in historic times. 

After the hunter spread away from the plateaus of Asia, 
which were growing higher and becoming drier, the domestica- 
tion of animals began and many hunters became herders. Later 
they developed agriculture, settled in the fertile valleys, and culti- 
vated grain of various sorts. The spreading of the hunter to 
many parts of the world, where he became a formidable warrior 
and the precursor of civilization, brings us to the advent of wars, 


Philippine Islands 

* The peninsular portion of India lying between the river Narbada on the 
north and the Kistna on the south. 



and to those movements of dispersal which were the results of 
invasions. We will take these up in order presently. 

The Fifth Spreading Movement 

In the early Neolithic period man continued to spread over 
the Asiatic plateaus to America, later becoming the American 
Indian. He also spread over Europe and into Great Britain 
as well as over Asia and America. The three races of Europe 

Alpine Race ; Nordic Race ; Mediterranean Race 

today, the Nordic, Alpine, and Mediterranean, are found some- 
what as they were in the Neolithic period, but at the beginning 
of that period we find the Alpine spreading from the Swiss lake 
region in all directions, but chiefly to the east and south, the 
Nordic spreading from Scandinavia around the Baltic region 
and over the steppes of what is now Russia, and the Mediter- 
ranean moving from the region of the Levant around the 
Mediterranean Sea into Great Britain. 

The Sixth Spreading Movement 

During the Neolithic period man spread from the eastern 
Mediterranean area to India and out into some of the Pacific 
islands as mixtures of the Hamitic, Semitic, and Mediterranean 
races; later as Mohammedans they reached as far as Manila in 
the Philippine Islands before the Spanish arrived there. There 
was a further spread of similar stocks through Egypt and other 
parts of Africa, and particularly along the southern shores of 
the Mediterranean Sea. These movements followed those of 



the Hamitic Race into Africa, and preceded those of the Arabs, 
or Moors, who later came as far as Spain. 

Dispersal by Invasion 

The chief early invasions that may be recognized from 
archeological or other investigations are those which immediately 


precede the historic period: 1, The movements of man from the 
East, probably from the Iranian plateau, into Mesopotamia and 
possibly even into Europe and into India such as the Aryan 
Race; 2, The spread over northern Russia, Siberia, and Korea 
of the Ural-Altaic or Semi-Mongoloid people, a group which 
included the Tartars, the Turks, the original Bulgars, the Huns, 
and a great many other groups of similar people; 3, The move- 
ments of the Semitic and Mediterranean races from Mesopo- 
tamia to Europe and Africa carrying the civilization developed 
in Mesopotamia — the pioneers in agriculture and all other cul- 
tures of early times in Asia ; 4, The movements of the northern 
"barbarians" from around the Baltic southward, which began 
with the people who formed the Goths and Vandals and cul- 
minated in the Viking raids and colonization of from 800 to 
1200 a.d. ; 5, The movements' in the Pacific of Malays and Poly- 
nesians; 6, The movements among the American Indians; 7, The 
advent of the Eskimos into America ; 8, The movements among 
the later Negroes of Africa. 

The First Invasion 

The Alpine Race developed in Europe, at first occupied the 
central part, especially in the lake region of the Alps, and later 
spread over Russia. In the course of time as they advanced 



over the Iranian plateau they domesticated milk-producing ani- 
mals, made cheese, cultivated grains and fruits such as oranges, 
grapes, peaches, and figs, painted pottery, and practiced weav- 
ing and metal working. Later, the Hittites, whose racial iden- 
tity is not yet settled, but who were probably of Alpine descent, 


overthrew the dynasty of Hammurabi in Babylonia. They after- 
ward extended their dominions as far as Jerusalem, at the time 
the Mitanni separated Babylon from Syria, and occupied the 
country about the tributaries of the Euphrates, although they 
were dominated by the Horsemen of the Steppes called Kharri, 
who came by the way of Azerbaijan in Persia. 

In the Aegean about 2500 B.C. the Semites, with possibly 
some Mediterranean and Alpine mixture, produced a strain of 
restless mariners and business men who, through their search for 
gold, copper, tin, and precious stones in the mines which they 
worked, played a large part in the early dissemination of culture 
from the eastern Mediterranean to western Europe, Great 
Britain, and the Baltic. Their remains are found close to the 
sites of former mines for gold, copper, and tin, and are in sar- 
cophagi that are handsomely ornamented, indicating that they 
were personages of importance. They were no doubt the leaders 
or directors of the mines and trading posts as well as of maritime 


enterprises. Their centers of operation were Crete, the Cyclades, 
and Hissarlik II. Finally Crete dominated the other two and 
controlled the trade of the known world of that time. 

Parts of Russia and central Europe were overrun by the 
Alpine Race. They spread over the central part of Europe in 
solid masses and were never completely driven from their origi- 
nal positions, although partly displaced by the Horsemen of the 
Steppes (Kelts, or Celts, or Gauls as they are sometimes called) 
with whom they mixed and whose descendants today form the 
bulk of the people in Russia and central Europe. 

In order to understand the conditions at the time of 
the movements of the Alpines, and later the Horsemen of the 
Steppes, into Europe, it may be well briefly to recapitulate the 
previous movements of man into Europe, and the development 
of man in Europe. The Neanderthal developed gradually into 
the Aurignacian, of which we have, as somewhat different forms 
of the same stock, the Grimaldi, the Brno (or Combe Capelle), 
and the Cro-Magnon. All three are closely related in physical 
type, although the Cro-Magnon was much taller than the others. 
All are long-headed with broad faces and projecting jaws, the 
Grimaldi more pronounced in the last characteristic than the 
other two. The Combe Capelle type occupied a large part of 
western Europe and some of the interior. They later crossed 
into the British Isles, and their descendants are found today in 
Wales and west Ireland.* They gradually became transformed 
until they resembled the Mediterranean Race. 

The latest Aurignacians were present in Europe not later 
than 10,000 B.C.; after them came the Magdelenians, Azilians 
(a few may have gone into Britain), and about 5000 B.C. the 
Neolithics. It is as yet uncertain how many or which of these 
races may have been new immigrants and which of them origi- 
nated on the spot. 

The peoples enumerated above constituted the population of 
Europe at the time a new people appeared who were fierce and 
warlike, and who conquered as they moved forward in ever in- 
creasing numbers. These tall, long-headed robust people have 
been called variously Kelts, Celts, Ligurians, Gauls, Centaurs, 
and other names, but we will call them "Horsemen of the 
* H. J. Fleure : The Races of England and Wales. 



Steppes" because they rode horseback wherever they went. These 
people moved from the steppes of Russia into Europe during a 
prolonged period of drought. The first movement passed 
through the Volga Valley. Some of these fine people reached 
the Baltic and moved up the Rhine to become overlords in 
Switzerland, while others entered Hungary through the Mo- 
ravian gate. 

Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Actual length, 20?^ inches 

In central Europe two cultures grew up — a peasantry culture 
in the Alpine mountains, and the bronze sword culture on the 
Hungarian plain. The latter was developed by the Horsemen 
of the Steppes, some of whom passed north into Denmark. 

About 1000 B.C. a second movement of the Horsemen of the 
Steppes came from the east through the Moravian gate armed 
with iron swords, and spread over the Danube basin. They 
partly displaced their predecessors of the bronze sword culture. 

In the meantime other groups of Iron Sword peoples passed 
into Italy through the Predil Pass, settled in the Isonzo valley, 
the Friuli plain, the valley of the Po, and the foothills of the 
Apennines, with their center at Bologna. Here they established 
what is known as the Villa Nova culture, which was the same 
as that which the Dorians brought with them in their invasion 
of Greece. It was characterized by various kinds of large wide- 
mouth drinking cups called beakers, which were made of clay, 
porcelain, silver, and other metals, and by long iron swords. 
They conquered the Etruscans, those traders who had entered 


Tuscany and founded trading cities governed by religious magis- 
trates, and who had carried trading and the search for gold and 
jewels to nearly all of the known world at that time, especially 
around the Mediterranean, and through Britain to the uttermost 
part of west Ireland. Their descendants are still found in mer- 
cantile marine and banking enterprises throughout the world. 

After occupying Tuscany the Gauls, a mixture of the Alpine 
Race with the Horsemen of the Steppes, filled the country as 
far as Pompeii, and later settled in the valley of the Valino. 
These peoples and their predecessors were fighters and con- 
quered wherever they went. Their advance was not rapid, but by 
gradual overflow, followed by sudden thrusts, as they increased 
in number and power. They organized the communities they 
conquered, and settled down as they advanced until, with the 
exception of Spain, they controlled almost all the rest of Europe. 

The Bronze Sword people conquered central Europe first, but 
were refugees from the Iron Sword people in Scandinavia and 
Britain, when the latter drove them from the valley of the 
Danube, Greece, Italy, north of the Apennines, France (except 
the Seine valley and Brittany), Belgium, and other regions far- 
ther north. The late Bronze Sword people, those big, burly, 
blond, broad-headed folk, conquered large parts of Britain, drove 
out some of the previous inhabitants, and introduced their lan- 
guage which is still found among the descendants of those 
Mediterraneans who were driven into Wales, west Scotland, and 
west Ireland. The Bronze Sword people adopted the burial 
customs of the Britons who buried their dead in long, under- 
ground passageways called Long Barrows, with niches along the 
sides, which the former changed to circular passageways, now 
called Round Barrows. They had previously practiced incinera- 
tion of their dead. 

The examples given by these peoples illustrate the thrust 
movements of invasion. Many later movements of their de- 
scendants took place when the barbaric hordes which caused the 
downfall of the Roman Empire overran a great part of Europe; 
these continued up to the time of the Vikings, who were of the 
same stock. The conquered were more numerous than the con- 
querors, and although the latter left their impress on the 



physique of Europe they have largely disappeared except as 
blends, mosaics, and mixtures. 

The Second Invasion 

The movements of the Ural-Altaic, or Finno-Ugrians, have 
been so obscure, and many of them so recent, that these races 


are either unknown or so well known that nothing need be said 
about their movements. The Turks started in much the same 
way as the Horsemen of the Steppes, and the first group was 
composed of about 400 families. They thrust, conquered, and 
organized, and repeated the process until few of the original 
families were left, and only the shadow of an organization. They 
took up Mohammedanism, poured over into Europe, spread over 
northern Africa and almost controlled the Mediterranean. The 
victory of John Sobieski at Vienna in 1683 turned the tide of 
their success and today they are practically out of Europe. 

The Third Invasion 
The Mediterranean Race originally occupied Sumer, Elam, 
Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Crete, and parts of Asia Minor, which 
during the Mesolithic times had been partially occupied by the 
Semitic Race. About 6000 years ago, or earlier, they started 
from east of the Mediterranean Sea and spread westward. They 
distributed themselves over the Aegean at the beginning of the 



T A ~W 

['" •' / ) 

~*!j<\ v 


Y? £ 




** 1 


rffonc or 

CANC&t \j_VV 

— -s^v, 

Neolithic period, and 
northward into France 
and thence into England. 
They also peopled Italy 
and Spain. 

In Greece they occu- 
pied the islands and 
coastal valleys, and the 
valleys of the southern 
part of the Balkan penin- 
sula. The whole of Fig. <5-the third invasion 

southern Italy was occupied by them, as was also the whole 
of Spain, except the Basque country and the northern interior 
of Spain, where they mixed with the Kelts to form the Kelti- 

The Mediterranean Race has been called Iberian in Spain, 
Ligurian in Italy (although this was also applied to the Gauls), 
Pelasgian in Greece ; and Silurian in Britain. They spread partly 
over the British Isles and still form a substantial element of the 
population. They were people of the Long Barrows. 

Arabia was the homeland of the Semitic Race, although in 
south Arabia there is evidence of an ancient Hamitic population 
which still persists along the south and southwest coasts; as, for 
example, the Tihama Arabs of the southern Red Sea Littoral, 
and the Mediterranean-like Arabs of the southwest mountains. 
The Semitic Race is one of a group that has the Hamitic Race 
at one extreme and the Mediterranean at the other. Not later 
than 3000 B.C., as the Akkadians and Canaanites, they passed 
from Arabia over Sinai and Palestine to Mesopotamia. 

The first wave was that of the Akkadians, who overran 
Syria and Palestine and then passed on to Mesopotamia. They 
overcame the Sumerians finally and settled in Babylon, between 
the Mediterranean Sumerians on the south and the Alpine 
Elamites on the north. A second wave of the Semitic Race 
spread northward and westward not later than 2500 B.C. These 
were the people known as the Canaanites; they had relations 
with the Phoenicians who a little later moved from the Persian 
Gulf and established themselves on the Syrian coast. A late 
phase of the same movement of the Semitic Race had some con- 


nection with the domination of Lower Egypt by the Hyksos who 
were forced out of Syria by the Gallic Kassites and Mitanni. 
The third Semitic invasion, the Aramean, brought north the 
Hebrew and related peoples, Moab, Edom, and Ammon, who 
occupied the country as far as the Taurus Mountains. Im- 
mediately before the Christian era a fourth invasion brought the 
Nabataeans and others. This outline is necessarily sketchy and 
schematic but accords well with the facts. 

The Abrahamic family were a tribe of Mesopotamian 
Semites, probably identical with the Ibri or Habiri of the Egyp- 
tians, and similar to the Bedouin, or nomadic, Semites. They 
entered the land of Goshen during the Hyksos domination and 
left shortly after the expulsion of their patrons. When they re- 
turned to Palestine they met, conquered, and then amalgamated 
with the Amorites and the Hittites, the former of the Semitic 
Race and the latter probably of the Alpine. Later the Israelites, 
now a mixed Semitic and Alpine people, took into their stock the 
Philistines, a typical Mediterranean Race. The rounded face 
with a large, prominent nose has ever since that time been a 
distinctive characteristic of some of the Jews. 

The Jews today are divided into two stocks, the Ashkenazic, 
or northern branch, of Russia, central and western Europe, 
and England; and the Sephardic, or southern branch, of Arabia, 
Asia Minor, Egypt, Spain, and Portugal. The latter has been 
so mixed with the Mediterranean Race that often they cannot 
now be distinguished. The Jews of the northern group have a 
fair share of light hair and skin, derived from mixtures with the 
northern Europeans. 

The southern branch of the Semitic Race, largely known as 
Arabs, was introduced into Egypt about 1000 B.C., or earlier; 
they were called Sabaeans and Himyarites. In Abyssinia they 
mixed to form the Amhara and Agau, and later they crossed 
with the Hamitic Galla to form the Somalis. The Arabs settled 
largely west of the Nile at a later period and mixed with the 
Sudanese tribes. The north of Nubia has become Arabized. 
During historic times the Arabs spread over north Africa and 
eventually into Spain where they became known as Moors. Jews 
reached Africa before the Christian era and since then have been 
pouring in. None of the peoples of Africa, even including the 




Mediterranean Race, have modified the original Hamitic Race, 
or disturbed their ethnic character, except for a narrow fringe 
along the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea where the 
Mediterranean Race is predominant. 

The Fourth Invasion 

The movement of the "Barbarians of the North" from about 
the Baltic, including their terminal thrusts in the Viking raids 
from 800 to 1200 A.D., are so recent and well known that it is 
needless to discuss them here. 

A bare outline of some of their more famous movements will 
be given. The first nucleus of these people was among the Ger- 



mans. It was an amalgamation of a race of peoples in the 
Neolithic period known as the Megalith builders, and the sub- 
sequent amalgamation of these people with the people of the 
Single Grave or Battle Axe Group who arrived about the end 


of the Stone Age. There were three main divisions of Germans 
in early historic times. There were the North Germans of Scan- 
dinavia who later produced the Vikings; there were the East 
Germans who were an offshoot from the North Germans; and 
there were the West Germans who about 1000 B.C. pushed west- 
ward and southward into the territory of the Celts, Kelts, or 
Gauls, and about 200 B.C. had advanced the German boundary 
to the Rhine and Main rivers. They also moved up the Elbe 
and occupied all of what is now south Germany. These were the 
Germans who came into contact with the Romans under Caesar 
and later under Tacitus. They developed the great confeder- 
ated tribes of the Alemanni, the Saxons, and the Franks. 

The East Germans were a branch who about 500 B.C. mi- 
grated to the lands between the Oder and the Vistula and pushed 
down to the Carpathians. Many were migrants from Gottland, 
an island in the Baltic Sea, the Lombards came from Scania, the 
southern extremity of Sweden, the Burgundians from Bornholm, 
an island of Denmark, the Rugians from Rogaland in southwest 
Norway, and the Goths from Ostergottland and Vastergottland 
in northern Sweden. These last are the most celebrated. There 
were also the Vandals, the Gepids, and the Heruls from Den- 


mark, south Jutland and Fiinen, who followed the Goths to the 
south, in the direction of the Black Sea. Here in southern 
Russia lay the new territory of the Goths, and it was here that 
they divided into the Ostrogoths and Visigoths, and it was from 
this region that the great Gothic attack, which began about 
247 A.D., was launched on the Roman Empire. 

The movement of a large section of the Scandinavian peoples 
across the Baltic Sea in the pre-Roman Iron Age, about 500 B.C., 
is not an episode in history, but the beginning of the maximum 
expansion of the Germans — a migration period lasting from 
about 400 to 800 a.d. — Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Lombards 
pressed into Italy; Vandals, Burgundians, Franks, and other 
Visigoths conquered Gaul; Visigoths and Vandals invaded Spain, 
the Vandals continuing into Africa ; the Alemanni founded a 
powerful state on the middle Rhine and the Alplands; and the 
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded Great Britain. 

In the meantime the North Germans were rapidly becoming 
the separate nations that we now know as Sweden, Norway, 
and Denmark, and long before the West and East Germans were 
derived from them. The Swedish state was probably the first 
to form. Thus Sweden can lay claim to being the oldest state 
in Europe. Pliny, Tacitus, Ptolemy, and Cassiodorus, give us, 
in the order named, the first historical accounts from the Scandi- 
navians. Much of the history came from the Scandinavian 
King Rodvulf who attached himself and his followers to the 
court of Theodoric the Great, where Cassiodorus was a dis- 
tinguished Roman statesman and a highly honored man. Nor- 
way developed as a separate state from Sweden, and afterward 
groups of these two states conquered the whole territory of what 
is now Denmark and established themselves there, especially in 

It is needless to give the history of Scandinavia and of the 
Vikings. After the establishment of the East Germans and the 
West Germans, from the three states of Scandinavia, the trade 
routes to the southeastern Mediterranean on land and the trade 
routes of the west by sea were controlled by these Germanic or 
Scandinavian peoples. The Vikings were something more than 
thieves and destroyers of property; from the earliest times on- 
ward they were a folk soberly addressing themselves to the 

From an engraving after a painting by A. de Neuville 




necessary task of winning lands abroad. Between the end of 
the eighth and the middle of the eleventh century A.D., the three 
Viking peoples did many brilliant and astonishing things. The 
Norwegians created and owned towns in Ireland and possessed 
nearly all of the Scottish islands; they colonized the Faroes, 
Iceland, and Greenland; and they discovered America. At home 
they made themselves into a Christian nation united under one 

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king. The Danes extended their authority over Friesland and 
won all England for their keeping; like the Norwegians they 
possessed towns in Ireland and likewise became a single Christian 
kingdom. In France a rich and pleasant colony was won from 
the Western Empire by Danish and Norwegian Vikings. In the 
east the Swedes took large tracts of the East Baltic lands, be- 
came the lords of the Dnieper basin, founded the Russian state, 
ruled the Russian cities, and even dared to assail Constantinople 
(Stamboul) and to make commercial treaties with the Greek 



The Fifth Invasion 

The movements in the Pacific have been of small size and 
short duration. The first people in the Pacific were the Ne- 
gritos, and later probably some tall Negroes in the south. The 

» f y~r- 

.TTTT^a 1 





rrortc or 





y>* P^T\ 

1 •• 








/ ) 

rmjfic or ■& trr/cor* 


\ • ' 

^ , 






Pre-Dravidians and Australians may, however, have been there 
even earlier. The latter settled chiefly in India and Australia, 
but remnants are still discernible in some of the Pacific islands 
southeast of Asia and on the south coast of Asia. Then came 
the Dravidians of the Hamitic Race, who passed through less 
than 5000 years ago. The Malays of the north had settled in 
the islands adjacent to the Asiatic mainland as an offshoot of 
a Yellow-Brown Race similar to the southeastern Asiatics. The 
Negroes and the Australians had crossed in the south, and some 
of the Malays had mixed with them to form the Melanesians. 
The Indian Whites, or Indonesians, mixed with Malays and 
traces of Negrito forming the Polynesians. This new race drove 
a broad wedge through the Pacific which has its point in the 
Hawaiian Islands and its base from Luzon to New Zealand. 
Some similar stocks also reached to Madagascar. In the heart 
of some of the large Pacific islands pure Indonesian chieftains 
may still be found. 



Later, some thousand years or more ago, there was a Malay 
wave, which started in Sumatra and filled the coastal plains of 
the large islands. The Chinese mixed with them and have car- 
ried on the trade of the islands for the last 600 or more years. 
The latest movement was that of the Mohammedans, chiefly 
from Arabia, and they had almost completed the conquest of the 
Philippines when the Spaniards came; since then they have 
been confined to the Sulu archipelago and Mindanao. There 
have been smaller movements, but these have been the most 

The Sixth Invasio 


Movements among the American Indians were chiefly a 
gradual spread from Alaska along the west coast and to the east 
and southeast, until the whole of the Americas had been peopled 
by them. The first to come across from Asia were evidently the 
long-headed Indians represented by the Algonquin, Iroquois, 
and Shoshonean stocks in North America, by the Piman Aztec 
tribes farther south, and by many branches in South America 
extending from Venezuela and Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. The 
so-called "Lagoa Santa Race" were Indians of this type. Next 
came the broad-headed Indian of the Toltec type. They set- 
tled on the northwest coast, in the Antilles, in Mexico, in Yuca- 
tan, in the Gulf States, in Central America, and in Peru and 
other parts of South America. Still later came the Athapascan 




Indians. They found no room in the south and were forced 
to spread over the cold north. The Athapascans were similar 
to the other broad-headed stocks which had preceded them. 


They settled chiefly in Alaska and northwestern Canada, along 
the western coast in California where they were known as the 
Hupa, and in Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and parts of Mexico 
where they became known as the Apache. 



The Aztec, the 
Mayan, and probably 
another branch of the 
Maya in Peru, the 
Yunca of the coasts, to- 
gether with the Aymara, 
Quichua, Nahua, and 
others, formed civiliza- 
tions. Many thrust 
movements took place, 
but they were of a minor 
character and so obscure 
that it is needless to 
dwell on them. 

The Seventh Invasion 

One of the latest of 
the invasion movements 
was that of the Es- 
kimo from their origi- 
nal home in the extreme 
northeastern corner of Asia and the adjacent shores of 
Alaska, including some of the intervening Aleutian islands, 
across the northern part of North America to Green- 
land, where the latest and most extreme types are to be 
found with extremely long, narrow, high skulls with keeled 
domes. Those who are at present found in Asia resemble 

Fig. 53— ESKIMO MAN 
From Smith Sound 




the Chukchi * and neighboring tribes, but those in Green- 
land are somewhat different. The breadth of the nose 
is greatest in Asia and least along the Arctic coast of North 
America and in the northeast, including Greenland. The 
stature is highest along the rivers and parts of the coast of 
western Alaska, and lowest in Greenland and Labrador. The 
changes appear to have been gradual and moderate and as 
a single group. Their nearest basic relatives are the American In- 
dians. The two families, Eskimo and Indian, might be likened to 
a hand, with the Eskimo as the thumb, a younger, smaller, and 
still uniform member, the Indians like the fingers, and the original 

paleo-Asiatic like the 
hand, the source of both. 
The later differentiations 
within the Eskimo group 
have been in America. 

The Eighth Invasion 

The most recent move- 
ments of the Negroes in 
Africa have been those 
of the Bantu f stocks. 
They moved south into 
the lower end of Africa 
and came up the west 
coast almost to the 
Congo, leaving the Bush- 
men and Hottentots in central South Africa. Later they started 
a backward movement from the southeast which went through 
central Africa and northwestward to the region of the Niger 
and the Sudan and Sahara. They conquered as they went, and 
occupied a great part of Africa, but the central, northern, and 
northeastern parts did not come under their control. They have 
not existed as a whole people, but settled as they conquered and 
left each community as a petty state with absolute sovereignty 
vested in a native chieftain. 


Treking from the coast of Alaska 

* A tribe found on the extreme northeastern corner of Asia. 
fA negro stock occupying nearly all of Africa south of the Equator, except 
the territory of the Bushmen and Hottentots. 



The movements of individuals and families formed a part 
of the spreading move- 
ments and also of the 
migratory movements be- 
tween the thrusts. The 
"Flight of a Tartar 
Tribe" may not have 
been a migration, nor a 
simple spread, nor yet a 
thrust movement. The 
best example of a migra- 
tion has been the settle- 
ment of the Americas. 
There have been others, 
but they have not been 
of great size or duration, 
and it would mean little ** 

+„ o^^U „„+ n „A ~^o^«- Fig. 56— THE EIGHTH INVASION 

to search out and present 

the known migrations, the major ones having already been suffi- 
ciently given under the other headings of spreading and invasion. 

The chief migrations came from Europe as the population 
increased beyond the saturation stage. There were nearly al- 
ways mixed movements of settlement, of barter, and of warlike 

More recently Britain spread to America, Australia, New 
Zealand, South Africa, and India. Other nations are in line for 
compression at home, or depression of the birth rate. 




American Indian 











The three main great races of man, the White Race, the 
Yellow-Brown Race, and the Black Race, occupy the great 
land masses in the Old World. All three have also moved to 
the New World, where today they are intermingling and mixing 
to a greater or lesser degree. All of these as well as other 
living races originated from the same parental stock, and the 
evidence points to Europe with the most proximate parts of 
Asia and Africa as the original home of all three. 

The Black and White races are the most divergent, whereas 
the Yellow-Brown Race is nearer to the White than to the Black. 
The Black Race in Africa, enervated by the heat of the tropics 
and handicapped by the dense jungles and by diseases peculiar to 
these localities, and the White Race, stimulated by the cold of 
the winters and aided by the healthfulness and fertility of the 
temperate zone, have developed along quite different lines. The 
hot, moist climate of the African jungle may have accelerated 
certain changes in the Black Race, such as increased color or 
pigmentation, kinky hair, broad nose, and even the head form 
and facial features, whereas the White and the Yellow-Brown 
races in the temperate zone did not become so rapidly differen- 
tiated from each other. They also retain in individuals various 
Neanderthaloid characters in more marked conditions than is 
found among the Blacks. A comparison of some of the most 
outstanding differences between the three races will be given in 
this chapter. 

Skin Characteristics 

The skin color of the White Race is "white," with variations 
from the almost depigmented, light rosy color of the blonds and 
reds and the pure white of the untanned Alpine brunette to the 

more or less tan of some of the Mediterraneans, the brown of 



the Arab, and the dark to black of the Hindu and the Abyssinian. 
The skin color of the Yellow-Brown Race is yellowish brown as 
the name indicates, but varies in different groups and in various 
parts of the body under different conditions of clothing and sun- 
light from yellowish white or tan to leather yellow and all shades 
of brown. The skin color of the Black Race is essentially black, 
varying from shades of brown to shiny or sooty black. 

The pigments in all the races are the same, but in the skin of 
the Black there are not only a greater number of granules than 
in the White and Yellow-Brown races, but the pigment granules 
are also larger and in more clustered masses. The skin folds 
or lines of the White Race are finer and closer together than 
are those of the Black Race. This condition, combined with 
the thickness of the skin and its inability to radiate or absorb 
the rays from the sun, gives to the skin of the Black Race that 
cool, soft, velvety surface which is so pleasant to the touch. 

Hair Characteristics 

The hair color in the White Race varies from lightest flaxen 
to golden or red through all shades of brown to jet black; that 
of the Yellow-Brown varies from jet black to reddish black; 
whereas that of the Black Race is coal black to grayish black. 

The hair on the body in the White Race varies from scant 
to abundant. The hair of the head is rich, long, of fine texture, 
straight, wavy, or moderately curly. The cross section is an 
ellipse. There is much tendency to baldness, particularly in men, 
and gray hair appears early and tends to become pure white. 
The beard is fine and long, slightly wavy or loosely curly, and 
generally grows plentifully on the sides of the face. 

The hair on the body of the Yellow-Brown Race is slight 
or none at all. The hair of the head is long, rich, straight, 
somewhat coarse or but moderately fine. The cross section is 
round to somewhat elliptical in contour. There is little tendency 
to baldness. A late moderate grayness occurs, generally incom- 
plete, and the hair remains yellowish gray. The beard is scant 
to moderate, straight to slightly wavy, and generally absent on 
the sides of the face. 

The hair on the body of the Black Race is often slight and 
rarely abundant. The hair of the head is bushy to scant, the 


individual hairs medium sized to rather coarse, the form woolly, 
or kinky, or in thick curls to scattered spirals. The cross sec- 
tion of the Negro hair is elliptical, flattened so as to be almost 
thick ribbon-like. There is but slight tendency to baldness in old 
age. Grayness appears late and is generally incomplete. The 
beard may be fairly well developed but is never as abundant as 
in many Whites; it has either close or loose curls, and there is 
a smaller amount on the sides of the face. 

The Iris and Pigmentation 

The color of the iris in the White Race is pale to deep blue, 
greenish, gray, and all shades of brown, with the conjunctiva * 
bluish to pearly white; in the Yellow-Brown Race the iris is 
medium to dark brown, the conjuctiva blue (in children) to 
white and yellowish; in the Black Race the iris is dark brown 
to black, the conjunctiva pale reddish, yellowish, or very light 
brownish in color. 

Differences in Physical Structure 

The stature in the White Race is medium to tall, and al- 
though there are individual dwarfs there are no groups of 
pigmies. The legs are medium length to long, and so is the 
torso or sitting height. The legs are shapely and full, and in 
women are stout and in apposition (touching) when standing. 
The hands and feet range in size from small to large and the 
latter are well arched. The bones of the extremities are medium 
to long and moderately curved. Exostoses (outgrowths of 
bone) are common. 

The stature in the Yellow-Brown Race is small to medium, 
seldom tall, occasionally approaching the pigmy. The legs are 
relatively short to medium, the torso or sitting height, relatively 
long to medium. The legs are not shapely and calves are often 
slender in men. The hands and feet are small to medium and 
the latter have a well developed arch. The bones are more like 
those of the White Race than those of the Negro. Flattening of 
the lower leg bones and of the humerus (the bone'of the upper 
part of the arm) is frequent and pronounced, especially in some 

* The mucous membrane which lines the inner surface of the eyelids. 


of the American Indians. There are fewer exostoses than in 
the White Race and rickets are unknown. 

The stature in the Black Race is very tall to very short, 
as in the Pigmies. The legs are relatively long and the torso 
relatively short in the Negroes and the reverse in the Negrillos 
and Negritos. The legs are moderately to well developed, but 
not shapely as in the White Race, and in the women they are 
slightly stout, often lanky, and in the slender not in full apposi- 
tion or symmetrically opposite when standing. The hands and 
feet are long in the Negroes but short in the Negrillos and 
Negritos. The arches are low, which often gives flat feet. 
The bones of the forearm and lower leg are relatively long in 
the Negroes but relatively short in the Negrillos and Negritos. 
The long bones are all remarkably straight without any marked 
flattening as in the Yellow-Brown Race. The bones are re- 
markably free from exostoses of any kind, and rickets is rare 
in the natural environment, but frequent in the temperate zone, 
possibly because the black skin does not let enough of the ultra 
rays of the sun through. 

Head and Skull 

The White Race 

The head and skull of the White Race are moderately long 
to broad, frequently high, large, and in shape variable. The 
skull bones are thinner than in the Negro. Pathological de- 
formities of the skull are infrequent. The forehead is medium 
to high and the frontal eminences are double, one on each side, 
and not central as in the Black Race. The supraorbital ridges 
(ridges above the orbits of the eyes) are small to quite pro- 
nounced, and the glabella, which is the depression between the 
brow ridges, medium. The depression at the root of the nose 
may be absent or well defined, broad or deep. The fissures be- 
tween the eyelids are horizontal and the visible part of the eye 
is spindle-shaped. The nose often has a prominent bridge and 
is medium to thin and narrow; the nasal aperture in the skull is 
slender, its borders sharp. The nasal spine is well developed and 
long. The nasal index is mostly low or leptorrhine (narrow- 
nosed). The cheek bones are seldom prominent and are often 
subdued; there is little or no facial or alveolar projection of the 



jaws. The lips are medium to thin, the teeth small to medium. 
The upper incisors on the lingual side are mildly and uniformly 
concave from above downward in contradistinction to the 


Showing the shovel-shaped character 

From the United States National Museum Collection 
Furnished by Dr. Ales tirdheka 

shovel-shaped incisors in the Yellow-Brown Race. The chin is 
more or less prominent, and the jaws small, though large in 
some individuals. The face as a whole is relatively narrow with 
slight cheek bones and few or no angles. 

The Yellozv-Brozcn Race 

The head and skull of the Yellow-Brown Race are medium 
to broad, low to high, and small to large, with much variation 
in shape and size, although on the whole slightly smaller than 
in the White Race. Pathological deformities of the cranium are 
very rare. The forehead is low to medium, the frontal emi- 
nences are generally double but not so well marked as in the 
White Race; the supraorbital ridges are medium to large, and 
the glabella is more or less ill developed. The eye fissures are 
oblique to horizontal; the visible part of the eye ranges from 
almond shaped to a shape much like that of the White. In some 
cases, especially in children, the corner of the upper lid next to 
the nose passes downward over the lower lid and makes the 
epicanthus or "Mongolian" fold, which causes the eye to appear 
still more oblique. The nose is long and moderately broad, 
with mostly a medium nasal index; the root of the nose is broad 
and shallow, and is in some groups ill defined; the bridge is not 
as prominent as in the Whites. The cheek bones tend to be 
prominent or voluminous and the face broad and long, thus 
making a large face, especially so in the American Indian. The 


face is not flat nor does it protrude. The teeth have only 
moderate projection, and are medium sized to large. The in- 
side of the upper incisors is generally shovel-shaped, which is 
a distinctive characteristic. In this respect the Yellow-Brown 
Race resembles the Neanderthal man more than does either the 
Black Race or the White Race. The lips are not turned out 
with a large spread of mucous membrane as in the Black Race. 
The chin is medium sized and the jaws are often large, strong, 
and well developed. 

The Black Race 

The head and skull of the Black Race are generally long, 
narrow and low, rarely broad, and smaller than in the White 
Race. The forehead is medium and usually has a single frontal 
protuberance or "lump" in the middle, which is especially marked 
in children. The supraorbital ridges are slight, the nasion de- 
pression deep, the nose low and broad, the nasal index platyr- 
rhine (broad-nosed), and the nasal borders dull and sometimes 
in the form of gutters. The eyes are rather wide open or 
bulging, the eye slit mostly horizontal. The cranium has a char- 
acteristic shape which varies little in the true Negro. The front 
part is relatively small and slender, the parietal and occipital 
regions rather protuberant. The cheek bones are about medium, 
the face and jaws project forward more than in either Whites 
or Yellow-Browns, the teeth are large and the upper incisors 
occasionally shovel-shaped. The lips are thick, excessively so, 
and the mucous membrane dark and everted to show an extensive 
area. The chin is small or moderate and the jaws mostly of 
but medium size. The entire face projects forward, often in 
marked contrast with the lack of projection in the White and 
Yellow-Brown races. 

The Neck and Body 

The neck and body in the White Race are shapely. The 
breasts are generally hemispherical. The buttocks are shapely, 
sometimes with a slight over-development of fat (steatopygy). 
The neck and body of the Yellow-Brown Race are less shapely 
than in the White Race. The breasts are conical to hemi- 
spherical, the waist and hips rather broad. The buttocks are 

Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History 

Tig. 59— A NEGRO 


seldom large, and the generative organs are moderately de- 

The neck and body of the Black Race are medium sized; 
the neck is sometimes long, but the body is in excellent propor- 
tions, frequently with superb looking musculature. The breasts 
are conical in shape, and the waist and hips are narrow. The 
buttocks are shapely, but sometimes have a pronounced stea- 
topygy or a great protrusion backward which forms a shelf. 

The Ear 

The ear of the Yellow-Brown Race is the largest. It is oval 
and somewhat flaring, with a lobule that hangs down low. The 
ear of the White Race, somewhat smaller than that of the 
former, is relatively narrow and long, and the lobule does not 
hang so low. The Negro ear is the smallest, and is at times 
angular in shape with a broad rim above and absence of lobule 
below; the helix, or incurved rim of the exterior portion of the 
ear, is quite often irregular in outline. 

Mental Characteristics of the Three Races 

In general, the brain of the White Race is large, the con- 
volutions are rich, with deep fissures. The mental characteristics 
are activity, nervous and physical vivacity, strong ambitions and 
passions, and highly developed idealism. There is love of amuse- 
ment, sport, exploration, and adventure. Art and music are 
highly developed in appreciation and skill. Poetry is also cul- 
tivated to a great extent. Egoism and individuality are strong, 
but worries and cares are excessive, and psychoses and other 
brain affections are not only frequent but are on the increase. 
The religious life of the Whites is varied and highly developed. 
Their industry is incessant and elaborate. They are more or less 
immune to certain diseases that affect the other races, but are 
subject to others. 

The brain of the Yellow-Brown Race is about medium 
human in size, with medium to good convolutions, which are 
sometimes varied and deep. The mental characteristics of the 
Yellow-Browns need further study, but they seem to be less 
vivacious, with emotions and passions less evident when strong 
than in the other two races. They possess moderate idealism 


and some love of sport, but have less spirit for exploration and 
adventure than the White Race. They are artistic, but their 
musical sense is subdued and they have little ability in poetical 
composition. They are less subject to cares and worries and are 
less varied and intense in religious feeling than is the White 
Race and have few psychoses and brain affections. They are 
industrious, endure fatigue, and are less likely to succumb to 
many of the infectious diseases than is either the White or the 
Black Race. 

The size of the brain in the Black Race is below the medium 
both of the Whites and of the Yellow-Browns, frequently with 
relatively more simple convolutions. The frontal lobes are often 
low and narrow, the parietal lobes voluminous, the occipital pro- 
truding. The psychic activities of the Black Race are a careless, 
jolly vivacity, emotions and passions of short duration, and a 
strong and somewhat irrational egoism. Idealism, ambition, and 
the co-operative faculties are weak. They love amusement and 
sport, but have little initiative and adventurous spirit. Within 
limits the Blacks are rather artistic in music, but not intellectually 
so. They show some ability in pictorial, decorative, and indus- 
trial art, but generally lack steady application. They have 
poetry of a low order, are rather free from lasting worries, are 
cursed with superstitious fears, and have much emotionalism in 
religion. They are only moderately affected by psychoses. 
Their worst diseases come from sexual promiscuity, contact with 
the White Race, and lack of acclimatization. 


This brief resume shows that the White Race is intermediate 
between the other two races in hair form, length of legs, ear 
form, and facial angle; the Yellow-Brown Race is intermediate 
in skull and brain size, in brain form, and in the projection of 
the nose and face; and the Black Race is intermediate in the 
amount of hair on the body. The Black Race has a greater 
number of extreme characteristics than either of the other two, 
and consequently is more fixed (static) in evolution. The altera- 
tions that take place during evolution are in separate characteris- 
tics and not in an entire individuality. There are extremes of 
one kind in one race and of another kind in another, therefore 


it cannot be said that one race is more advanced in evolution 
except in relation to individual characteristics. The White Race 
is more advanced in the evolution of the brain and face and in 
color, the Yellow-Brown Race in the loss of body hair, and the 
Black Race in the ear form, hair form, and length of the legs. 
The White Race, apparently, has greater immunity to city 
life and civilization with their diseases and lack of fresh air and 
sunshine; the Yellow-Brown Race has apparent immunity to 
certain diseases of the Orient, such as bubonic plague and 
cholera, and to some parasites; the Black Race has apparent 
immunity to tropic conditions and to certain diseases incident to 
tropical climates. If civilization and city life are to be the con- 
ditions of the future, the White Race has a survival value not 
possessed to nearly so great a degree by either of the other races. 



THE attempts to define race in terms of physical, mental, 
chemical, and pathologic differences is quite unsatisfactory 
because all racial characteristics greatly overlap between the 
groups, and none of the characteristics in any group may be re- 
garded as wholly fixed. There are wide ranges of individual 
and group variations, and the extremes overlap those of other 
racial units. 

Conditions of indefiniteness, or imperfect stability, and over- 
lapping apply to all characteristics of whatever nature. Nothing 
is set, nothing immutable, nothing wholly apart from the rest. 
The conclusion that man is represented today by but one species, 
and that his subdivisions deserve no further designation than 
that of races, seems the only justifiable conclusion. 

White, Yellow-Brown, and Black, as first designated by 
Hrdlicka constitute the three large divisions in which most of 
mankind can be included. The remainder are few in number, 
and are usually mixed, as the Senoi or Sakai of the Malay 
Peninsula, who are apparently mixed Malays, Pre-Dravidians, 
and Negritos. There is no satisfactory classification of the types 
of mankind, and we do not know the causes of race differences 
nor the extent to which a racial type is fixed. There is much flux 
to and fro, in the various groups, and the best we can do is to 
approximate the outstanding characteristics of each group. It 
is only by dealing with large numbers of individuals and by 
considering many criteria that we can strike an average which 
justifies the term race. 

Anthropologists and others have made many observations 
and measurements of peoples all over the world, and it is by 
means of profound studies of all the accumulated facts that one 
arrives at conclusions regarding the characteristics of the races 
and their distribution throughout the world. 



The earliest classification of man was by Linnaeus, who 
placed him among mammals under the order of Primates, as one 
species Homo sapiens, divided into Europeous, Asiaticus, Asser 
(Negro), and Americanus. Two other races are mentioned 
Homo fesur (savage) and Homo monstrnosns, connected with 
peculiar notions of the past. 

Blumenbach next added Malay, which made five races be- 
cause he left out the savage and monstrous. Later, in 1801, 
Virey recognized only two races, or "species"; Morton, in 1839, 
twenty-two; Huxley, in 1870, nineteen; Topinard, in 1885, nine- 
teen; Deniker, in 1901 and 1926, twenty-nine; and Burke, 
sixty-three. With greater perception, Haddon, in 1925, grouped 
mankind into three races, according to hair form: The Ulotrichi, 
or woolly haired (Black), with nine sub-races; the Cymotrichi, 
or wavy haired (White), with twenty sub-races; and the Leio- 
trichi, or straight haired (Yellow-Brown), with ten sub-races. 

If an intellectual person should try to classify man based on 
his own observations he would inevitably say in the first place 
that there are: "White people (Europeans)"; "Yellow-Brown 
people (Asiatics)"; and "Black people (Africans)." 

Further observations would show him that there are three 
groups of Europeans: dark, rather short people, like the 
Spaniards or the Italians (Mediterranean Race) ; people of 
intermediate stature and complexion, such as we picture the 
south Germans or native Swiss (Alpine Race) ; and fair, tall, 
people, such as the Scandinavians (Nordic Race). There are 
non-European sub-divisions of the W T hite Race — the Hamitic 
and the Semitic races. Similarly there are sub-races of the 
Yellow-Brown and the Black races. These we will now con- 
sider in their order. 

Sub-Races of the White Races 
The Mediterranean Race 
The Mediterranean Race is characterized by a white to 
tawny skin, swarthier than that of the Nordic Race. When not 
exposed to sunlight of any intensity it may become ivory white 
with rosy tints in health, but tans readily and it may become of 
different shades of tan or even brown, as in some Arabs and 



Egyptians. The eyes are medium to dark brown. The stature 
is mostly about the average for men, or near five feet, five inches, 
and it is about five feet for women, but there are many shorter 
groups. The stature is remarkably stable under many different 
conditions in various parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, and 
with few exceptions it has changed little from the time of the 
ancient Egyptian to the time of the modern Englishman. 


The other physical characteristics are also remarkably 
though not absolutely stable. The head of the Mediterranean 
tends to be long and narrow, and the back of the head projects 
markedly. The hair varies from dark to black, and from 
straight to loosely curly. The beard is rather plentiful, charac- 
teristic, and uniform. The face is oblong, the features rather 
prominent, and the lower jaw of medium strength. The nose 
is likely to be straight and not very thin. The mouth is small, 
with lips well curved, and now and then rather full. 

The first highly civilized contingent of this race about which 
we hear in history is the Sumerian; then follow the Phoenician, 
the Cretan, the Greek, and the Roman. 

The Mediterranean Race today occupies in general the Medi- 
terranean coasts from the Azores and Canaries to about the 
Levant, parts of India, part of northern and eastern Africa, and 
parts of western Europe. In Britain they are well represented 
in south Wales and Cornwall, are scattered generally through- 
out England and the islands along the west coast of Scotland, 





»— i 








I— I 




I— I 







and are to be found in the Irish provinces of Connaught and 

Scattered parts of the Mediterranean Race still remain in 
the eastern Mediterranean hinterland: the Persians, the Azer- 


baijani of Persia and the Caucasus, the Hajemi of Persia, the 
Susians, the Samaritans, with other scattered groups. They 
merge here with the Semites. 

The Alpine Race 

The Alpine Race has a complexion which is intermediate 
between dark and fair. The hair is mostly brown, straight to 
slightly wavy. The beard is ample. The head is generally 
broad and rather high with but little protruding in the back. 
The face is somewhat broader than in the Mediterranean, but 
the features are equally prominent. The nose is of good size 
and often rather broad. It is especially prominent in what is 
known as the Dinaric type. The stature is mostly medium with 
a tendency toward a heavy build. 

The Alpine Race, mixed more or less with other groups, 
forms the predominant part of the peoples of the Russian nation, 
of central Europe, and of the Balkans. It has left its impress 


on the Russian and other Jews, and it has modified more or less 
all the groups of man around the Mediterranean and the Baltic 
and in the British Isles. 

The Nordic Race 

The Nordic Race has a very fair complexion, ruddy rather 
than ivory white, which does not tan readily. The hair is light 
in color and texture, and straight to slightly wavy. The beard 
is long. The head is oblong and high, the face long with promi- 
nent features. The nose is long, narrow, high, and prominent. 
The eyes are blue, the stature tall, and other characteristics 
remind one occasionally of the Aurignacian people. 

The Nordic Race in great purity is confined to the Baltic 
region, north Germany, and especially to eastern Scandinavia, 
where it is purest of all. Skeletons similar to those of the 
Nordic Race are found in the kurgans of Russia and the "row 
graves" of Germany. The Nordics have mixed with all the 
peoples of Europe, with some of western Asia, and with some 
of northern Africa, and their blond characteristics have been 
partially obscured by crossing with darker races. 

The three races just described, the Mediterranean, Alpine, 
and Nordic, belong especially to Europe, but the other two sub- 
divisions of the White Race, the Hamitic and the Semitic, are 
not found in Europe today except in isolated or scattered groups. 

The Australian Race 

The Pre-Dravidian, or Australian Race, is by origin distantly 
related to the Whites. Its members are characterized by a dark 
to almost black complexion. Usually the hair is very curly and 
"matted," but in those unmixed with Papuan, it is straight or 
wavy. The hair in some men is plentiful over the entire body, 
and the beard is heavy and thick. The hair is not kinky or 
"cork-screw" as in the Negro, but in many who otherwise show 
Melanesian mixture it is decidedly curly. The head is oblong 
and in some cases narrow. In the men heavy brow-ridges, re- 
sembling more or less those of the Neanderthal, cross the entire 
base of the forehead. This race often has a low, receding fore- 
head, approaching the Neanderthal type. The individual fea- 
tures of the face, including a broad nose and a moderate to 



receding chin are also 
Neanderthal-like. The 
jaws project forward, 
the nose has a depressed 
root though a fairly 
prominent bridge, and 
the lower margin of the 
nasal aperture is nearly 
smooth or guttered. The 
eyes are dark and shel- 
tered by the overhanging 
brows which in general 
are more marked than in 
any other living race. 
The mouth is large with 
full lips. The stature is 
sub-medium to medium. 

What remains of the 
Australian Race is found 
in greatest numbers in 
northwestern Australia. 
At one time this race oc- 
cupied the entire conti- 
nent. It is, however, 
gradually diminishing and will doubtless disappear. People of 
similar physical characteristics and derivation lived in Tasmania, 
but are now completely extinct. The type, as such, has also 
disappeared elsewhere in Malaysia and India. 

The Australian Race, which sprang from a late Neanderthal 
or early Aurignacian form, came in all probability from the 
direction of Asia Minor into India, thence southward and east- 
ward through the Malay Peninsula, which in early times was 
connected with Sumatra and Java. Celebes, New Guinea, and 
the neighboring islands were then it seems joined to Australia. 

The Australian man shows primitive characteristics rarely 
found in modern man. In many cases he is extremely hairy, in 
marked contrast with the Negro, and more like an occasional 

The Australians of today are greatly mixed, with large con- 


An old man of the Arunta tribe 


sequent differences in color, hair, stature, shape of the head, and 
other traits. Blood tests still show a greater resemblance to the 
European than to any other people. 

Their nomadic character, lack of agriculture, of houses and 
clothes, and their failure to form communities show a primitive 
civilization, yet their totemism,* complex marriage regulations, 
and material culture are much specialized. 

Certain forms of Aurignacian man in Europe, such as 
Grimaldi at Mentone, the Combe-Capelle in France, and the 
remarkable collection of skeletons discovered by Maska at Pred- 
most and Brno in Moravia, in many respects resemble the 
aboriginal Australian. The Pfedmost skeletons were associated 
with a large collection of cultural objects somewhat similar to 
the churingia of the Australians. 

The modern Australian has been so greatly modified by 
mixture with other peoples that hardly any pure blooded aborig- 
inal Australians are now living. They are a temperate people, 
with much endurance and agility. Their skill in the use of the 
boomerang is marvelous. Their language is elaborate but with- 
out any system of writing; with the exception of mathematics 
they learn rapidly in schools. They represent a retarded de- 
velopment of a small old section of the White Race. 

Remnants of this stock apparently may be found in Ceylon 
among the Veddas, where their hair is long, black, coarse, wavy 
or slightly curly, the skin dark brown, the stature short, the head 
long and small, the forehead slightly retreating, brow-ridges 
more or less prominent, face Australoid, and nose rather broad 
and short. Some of the jungle tribes of southern India, some 
people of east Sumatra, and the Toala of the Celebes may origi- 
nally have been kin to the Australians, and there is a large sub- 
stratum of the Australoid throughout the Pacific islands. 

The Hamitic Race 

The physical traits which distinguish the Hamitic Race today 
are: dark brown to black hair, straight, wavy to moderately 

* Totemism is a primitive form of religion and society wherein a totem, an 
object usually representing some animal or plant, is considered as having some 
intimate relation to a man or group of men and is therefore sacred. A group of 
persons allied to one particular totem bears the name of that totem. Marriage 
within the group is strictly forbidden. 



curly; reddish brown or darker skin; sub-medium to medium 
stature; slender build; oblong head; oval, elongated face with 
not very prominent nose; lips medium; chin fairly prominent; 
and jaws not projecting. 

The Hamites of Egypt and North Africa, and the Dravid- 
ians of India were from the same stock that moved from the 
direction of Asia Minor. They moved with their cattle and 
their knowledge of agriculture, and as they spread over Egypt 
and India they introduced their cultures. They may have 
brought the Capsian culture into Africa and later presented it 
to the Mediterranean Race who carried it into southwestern 
Europe. The Hamitic Race penetrated into Africa as far as 
the Great African Lakes, where they spread and stayed for 
a great length of time. They reached into Eritrea below 
Meroe and into Somaliland. The Danakils, the Hamegs, the 
Somalis, and other numerous tribes are of Hamitic stock with 
some Negro admixture. Any older stock about the Nile is 
chiefly Hamitic. In Nubia the stock is Hamitic back to great 
antiquity. All the early Nilotic peoples and those about the 
Great African Lakes were Hamitics. The widely-spread keep- 
ing of cattle and the refinement of features betoken the influence 

Courtesy of Dr. Ales Hrdlicka 




of the Hamitic Race throughout Africa. They admixed, as 
later did the Semitics, even among the ancestors of the Bantu 

The Semitic Race 

The Semitic Race is characterized by black hair, by dark 
eyes, by a rather long face, and usually by a convex and promi- 
nent nose. The skin is white, but in Africa and Asia may be 
dusky or even brown among the Arabs, and the hair is mostly 
wavy to loosely curly. The stature is medium or taller and they 
are of rather slender build. The most marked characteristics 
of the northern Semitics are the prominent convex nose, the eyes, 
and the rather full lips. The southern Semites are chiefly Arabs 
and resemble the Mediterranean or Hamitic races. 

Their present habitat is in north Africa, Arabia, Meso- 
potamia, Syria, Persia, Asia Minor and parts of the Caucasus; 
they are also scattered over Europe and America and in the 
Pacific islands in small numbers. The Jewish branch is scat- 
tered over the whole world, though wherever the Jews migrate 
they grow through admixture to resemble the people among 
whom they live for a length of time. About five-sixths live in 
eastern and central Europe and one-sixth in the remainder of 
the world. 


Modified representatives of the Hamitic Race 


The Sub-Races of the Yellow-Brown Race 

The Mongolian Race 

The Mongolians, as exemplified by the Chinese, are of yel- 
lowish to brownish complexion with intense black, quite straight 
hair, scant beard, and little if any hair on the body. The head 
is oblong to broad, and the face is rather flat. The nose, low 
in the upper part, and long, does not project from the face as 
in the White races, is not flat as in the Negro, and the nostrils 
are moderately wide. The iris is dark, the eyelids often have the 
Mongolian fold and there is a general obliquity of the eye slits. 
The stature ranges from above low to medium. 

The American Indian 

The American Indian has a short to tall stature, yellowish 
brown to dark brown skin, long, black, lank, somewhat coarse 
hair nearly round in section, head broad to narrow, eye dark 
brown, eye slits straight to moderately oblique, face large, jaws 
often massive with medium projection, cheek bones prominent, 
and nose large and straight or aquiline. 

The mouth is large, the lips fuller than in the Whites, the 
chin well developed. The upper incisors are shovel-shaped on 
the inside, deeply concave, quite different from the Whites. The 
ears are rather large. The neck is of medium length, and the 
chest deeper than in the Whites. The hands and feet are of 
moderate dimensions and the relation of the lower leg to the 
upper leg and the lower arm to the upper arm length are inter- 
mediate between the Whites and Blacks, and fairly constant in 
both North and South America. 

The Malay Race 

The Malay for the most part is sub-medium in stature, with 
black, lank, straight hair; the skin varies from medium brown 
to yellowish; the head and face are mostly broad, sometimes the 
jaws project and the cheek bones are large; the nose is short and 
not prominent with fairly broad nostrils; the eyes are dark 
brown and often oblique with the Mongolian fold. 






The Malays are derived chiefly from the more southeastern 
Asiatics. They have mixed with the Negritos and other races, 
such as the Australoid, the Polynesian, and the Melanesian. 

The Sub-Races of the Black Race 

The Negro Race 

The Negro is medium to tall in stature; the skin varies from 
dark brown to black; the hair is black and frizzly or kinky; the 
head is long; the forehead has a single bulging center; often 
there is a marked projection of the jaws; the lips are thick and 
everted; and the nose is broad and flat. There are two main 
types of Negroes, one is burly with unusually long arms, the 
other is slender with unusually long legs. 

The Negrillo and Negrito Races 

The Negrillo has very short, kinky hair, dark rusty brown 
to black skin, slight hair on the face, short trunk, long neck, 
oblong to rounded head, short limbs, hands, and feet, a broad 
and flat face, bulging eyes, upper lip deep and convex, both lips 
full but not everted, bridge and ridge of nose broad and flat, 
nostrils very broad. In stature the men are a little over four 
feet. If we approach the Negrillos from any direction in Africa 




the type changes from the Negroid on the outside through the 
Negro to the Negrillo, the stature decreases and all the charac- 
teristics become altered. The Negrillos represent a modified 
Negro who is more capable of resisting the hardships under 
which he labors. 

The Negritos are so much like the Negrillos that descrip- 
tion is not necessary. There are several types of Negritos, 
however, some of whom are the result of mixtures with adjacent 
peoples who have come into the islands. 

The Bushmen 

The Bushmen have short hair rolled into small spirals leav- 
ing bare spaces between, and have but little hair on the body; the 
skin varies from deeply yellow to dark; the stature is small — 
about five feet; hands and feet are small; the head is small, low, 
and not broad, negroid; the face is flattened with relatively 
prominent cheek bones, bulging forehead, lips rather thick; the 
nose is very broad and flat; the eyes are often narrow and 
slightly oblique; frequently there is no lobule to the ear, which 
may be distorted in outline. 

Location of the Mixed Races 

The location of the mixed races and the designation of 
all the mixed groups would be too intricate to justify the time 
and space. Most mixtures are found in Europe, the eastern 
Mediterranean area, the Philippines, Oceania, and America. 
Africa has mixtures of Negroes, Negrillos, Bushmen, Hotten- 
tots, Hamites, Semites, and Mediterraneans, especially in the 
north and east, and in the recent past Europeans have been mix- 
ing with the others there. The Pacific islands have mixtures 
of Negritos, Australoids, Hamites, Mediterraneans, Alpines, 
Malays, and more recently Chinese and Europeans. The British 
Isles have the Neanderthaloid, Aurignacian, Hamites, Mediter- 
raneans, Kelts, Alpines, and Nordics. There are semblances of 
several races in Japan. Almost everywhere in the world today 
mixtures are going on. 

The greatest conglomerate of all is in the United States. 
Here we have about one-tenth of the population of the Black 
Race, a large number of Indians, some Chinese and Japanese, 






representations of all the nations of Europe and of some of the 
Near East. Wherever people have mingled they have mixed 
ultimately. Such will probably be the result in the United States. 
The Negro will probably disappear as such by amalgamation. 
All peoples will mix and blend to produce ''nationalities," from 
which gradually arise new types and further differentiation. The 
process of "re-creation" is still active. The result will be that 
those best fitted to survive in various climates and under various 
conditions of life will still be more or less unlike each other, but 
all will have closer resemblances than exist throughout the 
world today. Much will depend upon man's will to discover the 
facts of human heredity, and his wit to put this knowledge into 
effect for the elimination of the worst and the retention of 
the best. 



A — Early Culture Periods In Europe 

Late Neanderthal Not later than 18,000 B.C. 

Aurignacian Not later than 14,000 B.C. 

Solutrean Not later than 11,500 B.C. 

Magdalenean (Cro-Magnon) ....Not later than 9,000 B.C. 

Capsian (Mediterra- «.„ , , . 

x fNot later than 5,000 B.C. in Spain, 

nean) <* , , . _ r . . 

LNot later than 3,000 B.C. in Britain. 

Neolithic Not later than 5,000 B.C. in Europe. 

Alpine Not later than 4,000 B.C. 

Bronze Age Not later than 3,000 B.C. 

First Dynasty in Egypt Not later than 2,900 B.C. 

B — Horsemen of the Steppes In Europe 

Volga Valley Not later than 2,500 B.C. 

Bronze Sword Horsemen Not later than 2,000 B.C. 

Kassites Not later than 1,675 B.C. 

Denmark Not later than 1,500 B.C. 

Greece (Phrygians) Not later than 1,300 B.C. 

Greece (Achaens) Not later than 1,200 B.C. 

France Not later than 1,200 B.C. 

Iron Sword (Thessaly) Not later than 1,000 B.C. 

Dorian invasion Not later than 1,000 B.C. 

Drove out Bronze Sword Horsemen. Not later than 900 B.C. 

Villa Nova Culture, Pompeii, Valley of Valino, Predil 
Pass, Isonzo Valley, Frieli Plain, Valley of Po, Apen- 
nines, Bologna After 900 B.C. 

* Dates are approximate. 



C — Semitic Race 

In Akkad Not later than 3,000 B.C. 

In Mesopotamia Not later than 2,500 B.C. 

In Canaan Not later than 2,400 B.C. 

Joseph in Lower Egypt (Hyksos) . . . Not later than 1,675 B.C. 

Aramaean invasion . . Not later than 1,350 B.C. 

Arabs in Egypt Not later than 1,000 B.C. 

Israelites (Babylonian captivity) .... Not later than 580 B.C. 

D — Alpine Race 

Alpines started toward Europe or arose in 

Europe About 6,000 B.C. 

Alpine Hamitic Pre-Sumerians About 5,000 B.C. 

Alpine Hamitic Etruscans (Prospectors) ... .About 2,500 B.C. 

Alpines spread over Egypt About 2,000 B.C. 

Alpines (Hittites) overthrew Hammurabi .. .About 1,926 B.C. 
Alpines in Armenia? About 1,500 B.C. 

E — Mediterranean Race 

Capsian Culture into Spain About 5,000 B.C. 

Eastern Europe About 5,000 B.C. 

Sumerians started civilization About 4,500 B.C. 

Flower of Sumerian civilization About 3,500 B.C. 

In Egypt? About 3,500 B.C. 

As Philistines from Aegean in Canaan About 1,200 B.C. 

F — Nordic Race 

(See Horsemen of the Steppes) 

Spread over Russia 800-400 B.C. 

Spread over Europe 400 B.C. -800 a.d. 

Spread over north Britain, west France, Iceland, and 

Greenland, as Vikings 800-1200 a.d. 


Era and Its 


Dominant Life 








Geologic present 

s s * 

Age of 







Age of 
IVTa mmals 



(First traces of man) 



o 5 <» 


Age of 





Age of 




o g 
n o § 2 


Age of 

< fa 





Age of 







Primitive life 





First traces of life 





Formation stage 





Gaseous stage 

Oldest era at bottom. 


* See Note A on page 120. 



Ttme * 





T ^La Tene 
lr0n JHallstatt 



















Late Aurignacian 
(Similar to 

American Indian) 

Early Aurignacian 

(Similar to 





























ime period 



* See Note B on page 120. 













Stone cyst 


Smooth stone 











Lateral notched 


Laurel leaf 




Art graver 


Chipped flints 


cleave 1 : and 












Note A 

The scale in years on the left of the geologic chart is based 
on the most precise method man has so far discovered for deter- 
mining geologic ages. Uranium and thorium, for example, dis- 
integrate at a regular rate through successive stages into lead. 
By this method rocks have been analyzed, and further calcula- 
tions then made indicate that the earth is 3,000 million years old. 
Later we may know more exactly its real age. 

Note B 

The calculations of the geologic ages and the ages of man 
are somewhat indefinite, and vary from time to time depend- 
ing upon the method of calculation and the person doing the 
calculations. We may place the time period from the earliest 
chipped flints to the present day at somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of 300,000 years in all probability. 


Prepared by the Author 


An exhaustive scientific study of the known sites of early man with their physical character 
and geographic background. 

HUMAN ORIGINS — George Grant MacCurdy Appleton 

A scientific study of man's culture in the Old and New Stone Ages and in the Ages of 
Bronze and Iron. 


A voluminous work on the cultures of civilization. 

HUMAN BIOLOGY AND RACIAL WELFARE— Edmund V. Cowdry and twenty-six other 
authors; especially THE RACES OF MAN by Ales Hrdlicka Hoeber 

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and physical functions, the effects of environment, and future probabilities. 

and H. J. Fleure Yale 

The first volume presents the earliest forms of man and anthropoid apes; the second gives 
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industry, the designing of pottery and the development of language and racial type; and the 
fourth treats of later prehistoric times. 


A standard textbook designed for the beginner and the general reader. One of the best. 

ENVIRONMENT AND RACE— Griffith Taylor Oxford 

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OUR FACE FROM FISH TO MAN— William King Gregory Putnam 

The evolution of the face, skull, and features of man told largely by pictures. 


A practical text for beginners in physical anthropology. 

FOSSIL MAN IN SPAIN— Hugo Obermaicr Yale 

An authoritative study of early man in Spain with his art and culture. Illuminates the 
study of prehistoric man in Europe. 

THE RACES OF EUROPE— William Z. Ripley Appleton 

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A delightful account of the origin and distribution of the Indo-European Kelts (Celts) 
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Discusses the geography, ethnology, and language of the peoples of the ancient Near East, 
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THE MOST ANCIENT EAST— V. Gordon Childe Knopf 

A popular account of the radical enlargement of the historical horizon in recent years. 

THE ARYANS: A Study of Indo-European Origins — V. Gordon Childe Knopf 

A popular presentation of the development and distribution of the Indo-Europeans from a 
study of archeology. 

A HISTORY OF THE VIKINGS— T. D. Kendrick Scribner 

A comprehensive study of the life, activities, and wanderings of the Scandinavians from 
their movements into Asia in the Pre-Christian era and occupation of the trade routes of 
the world up to the Norman conquest of England and the settlement of the Vikings in 
Russia, Europe, Great Britain, Iceland, and Greenland, and also of their discoveries in 
North America. 


One of the best recent presentations of racial groups in Britain 


A study of the distribution of Indians and Indian culture. 



SAVAGE LIFE IN THE BLACK SUDAN— Charles William Domville-Fife Lippincott 

Observations of a traveler among the wild and mysterious peoples of central Africa. 
Interesting descriptions of customs, ceremonies, and ways of life of African tribes. 

THE SUMERIANS— C. L. Woolley Oxford 

A vivid account of one of the earliest civilizations that has given us a great deal of the 
best that we have today in life. 

THE PEOPLES OF EUROPE—//. /. Fleurc Oxford 

One of the best and most readable presentations of the Races of Europe. 

MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE— Henry Fairfield Osborne Scribner 

A popular presentation of the physical remains and culture of Early Man. 

A delightful history of the culture and life of the people of the Early East. 

WANDERINGS OF PEOPLES— Alfred Cort Haddon Cambridge 

A concise sketch of the movements of man. 

HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY— Alfred Cort Haddon Putnam 

One of the best short histories of anthropology. 

A HISTORY OF THE VIKINGS— T. D. Kendrick Scribner 

This is a thorough-going account of the Nordic peoples from early times in one continuous 
narrative, with the proper accent upon all their implications. It is a scholarly and exhaus- 
tive treatise showing the settlement of the British Isles, the discovery and colonization of 
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Russian state by the Swedes, the attack upon Constantinople, and the consummation of trade 
agreements with the Hanseatic League. 

HUMAN HEREDITY — Edzvin Baur, Eugen Fischer, and Frits Lens Macmillan 

This is not only a most exhaustive treatise of a great multitude of facts known about 
human heredity, but there is an illuminating section on the racial differences in mankind, 
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— Ernst Huber Hopkins 
The most recent and most scientific exposition of an interesting subject. 


Appleton — D. Appleton and Company, 29-35 West 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

Benn — Benn Brothers, Ltd., 8 Bouverie Street, London, E.C. 4. 

Cambridge — Cambridge University Press, 133-137 Fetter Lane, London, E.C. 4. 

Harper — Harper & Brothers, 49 East 33rd Street, New York, N. Y. 

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Scribner— Charles Scribner's Sons, 597 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Smithsonian — Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Yale — Yale University Press. 143 Elm Street. New Haven, Conn. 


[Only those terms are defined in this glossary which either are not explained 
in the text or are explained once and are used again several pages away from the 

Acheulian : third epoch of the Lower Paleolithic period ; named from St. Acheul 
(Somme), France. 

Alpine Race: a sub-race of the White Race; it is slightly modified from the Cro- 
Magnon, the Keltic, and the Nordic races by having a broader head and body 

Aryans : the people who occupied the Iranian plateau. 

Aurignacian : first epoch of the Upper Paleolithic period ; named from Aurignac 
(Haute-Garonne), France. 

Aurignacian man : resembles the Neanderthal man, but is more modern ; the late 
Aurignacian man was much like the American Indian. 

Australian, Aboriginal: almost like the Neanderthal man, but slightly more 

Australian, Modern : resembles the Neanderthal man, but is a white man with 
much hair more or less all over the body. 

Azilian : the epoch of transition from the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic 
period; named from Mas d'Azil (Ariege), France. 

Bantu: a subdivision of the Negro Race; also a system of African languages. 

Binocular vision : see Stereoscopic image. 

Blend : a hybrid between two homogeneous races. 

Brno man : so named because the skeletons were found in the loess deposits in the 
region about Brno in Moravia and are preserved in the museum in Brno; this 
man belonged to Cro-Magnon Race of the Aurignacian epoch. 

Brunn : German spelling of Brno. 

Bushman: a sub-race of the Black Race; about five feet tall, yellow to dark 
skinned, small hands and feet, very small head, prominent cheek-bones, thick 
lips, very broad nose. Formerly extended over greater part of South Africa, 
but now confined almost entirely to the Kalahari desert. 

Campignian : final stage of the Mesolithic period; named from Campigny (Seine- 
Inferieure), France. 

Capstan culture: the Upper Paleolithic stone industry of north Africa. 

Chellean : the second epoch of the Lower Paleolithic period ; named from Chelles 
(Seine-et-Marne), France. 

Combe-Capelle man : this skeleton of a tall man was found in 1909 in the rock 
shelter of Combe-Capelle near Montferraud (Dordogne), France, and is now 
in the museum in Berlin. He was a Cro-Magnon of the Aurignacian epoch. 

Cro-Magnon man: the oldest race of the species to which modern man belongs; 
so named from Cro-Magnon (Dordogne), France, where the type material 
was found in 1868 ; in contrast with the Neanderthal man, Cro-Magnon man 
was characterized by a prominent chin and forehead, tall stature, and rela- 
tively long legs. 

Devonian period: the period of the Paleozoic Era which follows the Silurian; 
named from Devon, England, where the rocks which characterize the period 
were first studied. 

Dravidian Race : the name applied to that division of the Hamitic race which is 
found in the southern part of India called the Deccan. 

Finno-Ugrian : see Ural-Altaic. 

Grimaldi man : belonged to Cro-Magnon Race. Since 1872 the caves of Grimaldi 
on the Franco-Italian frontier have yielded a number of skeletons ; they are of 
medium stature, with somewhat negroid jaws and a broad, nasal index. 

Hamitic Race : a sub-race of the White Race ; probably the first type of modern 
white man realized after man began to move away from the Iranian plateau, 
but it has become modified in modern times. 



Hottentot : a mixed race belonging to the Black Race ; a cross between the Bush- 
man and the Bantu ; found in southwestern Africa. 
Indo- Aryans: a native race of India of Aryan speech and blood. 
Indonesian: of Hamitic ancestry but modified by mixture with other races in 
the Pacific. 

Magdalenian: the closing epoch of the Upper Paleolithic period; named from 
the ruins of La Madeleine (Dordogne), France. 

Maglemosean: the Scandinavian equivalent of Azilian, the epoch of transition 
from the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic period. 

Malay Race: a sub-race of the Yellow-Brown Race; derived from the south- 
eastern Asiatic and mixed with the Negrito, the Hamitic-Dravidian, and recently 
the Chinese. 

Mediterranean Race: a sub-race of the White Race; similar to the Semitic 
and Hamitic races, but smaller and slenderer, and with a long, narrow head 
and face. 

Melanesian Race: one of the mixed races; chiefly Negro and Australian mixed 
with Indonesian. 

Microlith : diminutive stone tool occurring in various culture levels from the 
Aurignacian to the Tardenoisian inclusive. 

Miocene: the third epoch of the Cenozoic era. 

Mixture: a hybrid between two heterogeneous races. 

Mosaic : a hybrid which exhibits characters of both parents side by side unblended. 

Mousterian : the epoch between the Lower and the Upper Paleolithic periods ; 
named from Le Moustier (Dordogne), France. 

Neanderthal man : the first manlike form that is truly man. The posture is 
semi-erect ; the head bent slightly down ; the forehead low with a heavy roll 
of bone above deep-set eyes; the nose large and prominent; teeth and jaws 
heavy; the chin receding; shoulders of great strength; arms powerful; legs 
rather small. 

Negrillo : a sub-race of the Black Race ; a small infantile-like negro about four 
feet tall with a round head, a broad, flat face and nose, short limbs, hands, and 
feet ; found in the heart of Africa. 

Negrito: a sub-race of the Black Race; almost the same as the Negrillo, but 
found in the islands of the Pacific Ocean near the Asiatic mainland and in 
out-of-the-way places in the Malay Peninsula and southern India. Included 
in this sub-race are : the Andamanese of the Andaman Islands, the Semang 
of the central region of Malay Peninsula and East Sumatra, the Aeta of the 
Philippine Islands, and the Tapiro of New Guinea. 

Negro: a sub-race of the Black Race; medium to tall in stature (63 to 70 inches), 
a marked projection of the jaws, lips thick and everted. Included in this sub- 
race are the Sudanese and the Bantu. The True Negro is found only along 
the Congo, the west coast adjacent to its mouth, and in the central interior 
of Africa. 

Neolithic: the last period of the Stone Age; the New Stone Age — the period of 
smooth stone — polished. 

Nordic Race : characterized by tall stature, blond hair, long heads, rugged frames, 
and great mental and physical activity. 

Oligocene : the second epoch of the Cenozoic era. 

Paleolithic : the Old Stone Age, corresponding approximately to the Pleistocene 

Pleistocene: the fifth and latest epoch of the Cenozoic era. 

Pliocene: the fourth epoch of the Cenozoic era. 

Polynesian : one of the mixed races of the Pacific ; essentially Hamitic or Indo- 
nesian, but mixed with Malay on the north and with Melanesian on the south. 

Pre-Dravidian : the same as the Aboriginal Australian, although modified toward 
modern man; they occupied India before the Hamitic, or Dravidian, as they 
are called in India. 

Primitiveness : a primary condition in which not much differentiation or spe- 
cialization has taken place. 

Quaternary : the last part of the Cenozoic era ; often called the Age of Man. 

Semitic Race: a sub-race of the White Race; similar to the Hamitic Race, but 
in the northern group having more Alpine (broad head and body form with 


large prominent nose) and in the southern group more Mediterranean (long 
head and slender nose). 

Specialization: an advanced condition in which differentiation has taken place 
to a greater or less extent. 

Steppe: one of the vast level, and forestless tracts in southeastern Europe and 
in Asia ; some are desert wastes, and others are fertile and capable of high 

Stereoscopic image: the blending into one image of two pictures of an object 
seen from slightly different points of view; the image resulting from binocular 

Stone Age : the first of the three culture ages of prehistoric man ; it was char- 
acterized by the widespread use of stone implements. It was subdivided into 
three periods, Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic ; sometimes divided Old 
Stone Age and New Stone Age. 

Tardemoisian : the final stage in the transition from the Paleolithic period to 
the Neolithic period; named from Fere-en-Tardenois (Aisne), France. 

Tatar : see Ural-Altaic. 

Tonus : the condition of slight but more or less continuous chemical activity in 
muscles, maintained by constant reflex excitation, controlled through the cere- 
bellum, and leading to the production of heat. 

Turki : see Ural-Altaic. 

Ural-Altaic, Finno-Ugrian, Tatar, and Turki stocks : occupy the land between 
the Whites and the Yellow-Browns, extending from Finland and the Ural 
Mountains to Korea and Japan ; embrace the original Finns, natives of Volga, 
Huns, possibly Bulgars, Tartars, and various "Turanian" or "Turkic" stocks. 
They may have included the original Koreans and the early Japanese. 



Abraham, 74 

Abyssinian, 88 

Achaemenides (ak"e-men'i-dez), 13 

Acheulian (a-shu'li-an) period: dagger, 
9*; see Geologic Chronology in Ap- 

Agau (a-ga'66), 74 

Agriculture : beginnings, 10, 29, 65 

Akkadians (a-ka'di-anz), 73 

Alemanni (aTe-man'I), 76, 77 

Algonquin (al-gon'kin) Indians, 81 

Alpine (al'pTn or al'pln) Race : advent 
of, 65 ; broad-headed, 50 ; character- 
istic nose, 39 ; characteristics of, 102* ; 
first modern people in Europe, 11 ; lo- 
cation today, 102; mixed with Semitic 
and Mediterranean races, 74; on tree 
of races, 86 ; product of continental 
interior, 52 ; skin, 87 ; spreading of, 
66, 67, 69; teeth, 52 

American Indian : see Indian 

Amhara (am-ha'ra), 74 

Ammon (an'on), People of, 74 

Amorites (nrn'o-rltz), 74 

Anatomy, Human : evaluation of, 2 

Angles (an'g'lz), 77 

Animals : during Quaternary period, 16 ; 
domestication, 65, 68 ; see also under 
names of species (dog, elk, mammoth, 

Anthropology : methods, nature, and 
value of, 2 

Apache (a-pa'cha or a-pach'e) Indians, 

Apes : brains, 34 ; early forms, 16 ; evo- 
lution, 19; facial expression, 36; 
hands, 20*, 21* 

Arabs (ar'abz) : ancestry of, 73; skin, 
88; spread of, 74: type, 101* 

Arameans (ar"a-me'a'nz), 74 

Archeology : evaluation of, 2 ; reveals 
history of Barbarians, 7 

Art: of Cro-Magnon, 27, 29*; of the 
Ligurians and Horsemen of the 
Steppes, 13; racial differences, 94 

Artifacts : evaluation of, 3 ; of Barbari- 

f For key to pronunciation, see page 134. 
* Asterisk denotes illustration. 


Artifacts, continued: 
ans, 7 ; where found, 2 ; see also 
Flints, Stone industry, Iron industry 

Aryans (ar'yanz or ar'e-anz), 13 

Ashkenazic (ash"ke-naz'ic) Jews, 74 

Ashur : see Assur 

Assur (as'sodr), 6 

Assyria (a-sir'i-a) : civilization of, 7 

Athapascan (ath"a-pas'kan) Indians, 81 

Aurignacian (6"re-nya'shan) man: a 
transitional form, 27 ; peoples Europe, 
54; rise of, 69 

Australian Aborigine Race: advent of, 
59; characteristics, 103; location to- 
day, 105 ; migrate from Iranian pla- 
teau, 28 ; Neanderthaloid in form, 27 ; 
nose-form, 45 ; on tree of races, 86 ; 
settle Pacific islands, 80; teeth, 52; 
see also Pre-Dravidians 

Australian black-fellow, 30* 

Aymara (T'ma-ra') Indians, 83 

Aztec (az'tek) Indians, 81, 83 

Baboon: hand of, 20* 

Baldness : racial characteristics, 88 ; see 
also Hair 

Bantu (ban'too) negroes: hand of, 19*; 
movements of, 84; types, 111* 

Barbarians of the North : aptitudes of, 
12 ; invasion of, 75 ; see also Horse- 
men of the Steppes 

Barrows, 71 

Beakers, 70 

Beards: Alpine Race, 102; Australian 
Race, 103 ; Mediterranean Race, 99 ; 
Mongolian Race, 108; Nordic Race, 
103 ; racial characteristics, 88 

Bears, Cave, 22, 25* 

Binocular vision, 35 

Black Race: body odor, 51; ears, 51, 
94 ; eves, 49 ; face, 92 ; facial expres- 
sion, 37* ; hair, 48, 49*, 88 ; head and 
skull, 92 ; immunity from and sus- 
ceptibility to diseases, 53 ; iris and 
pigmentation, 89 ; long bones, 50 ; 
mental characteristics, 95 ; narrow- 
headed, 50 ; neck and body, 94 ; on 
tree of races, 86; sitting height, 49; 
skin, 88; small spleen, 51; stature, 
90; sub-races, 110; teeth. 52, 92 



Blood: racial differences, 51 
Body-form : racial characteristics, 92 
Bone industry : among Neanderthals, 58 
Bones: racial differences, 50 
Brachiating (bra"ki-at'ing) movements, 

Brachycephalic (brak"i-se-fal'ik) index, 

Brahmapootra (bra"ma-poo'tra), 29 
Brains : man's, 33, 34* ; primitiveness vs. 

specialization, 18; racial differences, 

British Museum expedition, 6 
Brno (ber'no) man: advent of, 27, 44; 

description of, 69 
Broken Hill Mine, 26 
Bronze Age : climate, 29 
Bronze industry : in Scandinavia and 

Finland, 1 1 ; sword and sheath, 70* 
Bronze sword culture, 12, 70 
Briinn (brim) man: advent of, 27, 44; 

see also Cro-Magnon man 
Buckets, Iron, 12 

Burgundians (bur-gun'dl-anz), 76, 77 
Burmese (biir-mez'), 109* 
Bushmen: characteristics, 112; in Cen- 
tral Africa, 84; on tree of races, 86; 

type, 64* 
Camel, Prehistoric, 15* 
Canaanites (ka'nan-itz), 73 
Cancer, 53 

Capsian (kap'ci-an) culture, 11, 64 
Capuchin (knp'u-chin) : hand of, 20* 
Cattle raising : begins, 10, 68 
Cave Bear, 22, 25* 
Celts : see Horsemen of the Steppes 
Centaurs : see Horsemen of the Steppes 
Cephalic (se-faTik) index, 50 
Chaldea (kal-de'a) : civilization of, 7 
Cheek bones : racial characteristics, 90, 

91, 92 
Chellian (sheTe-an) period: hand-ax, 

9*; see also Tables in Appendix 
Chimpanzee : hand of, 20* ; skull, 30* 
Chinese, 30* 109* 
Climate: during time of Neanderthal 

man, 57 ; effect on racial development, 

45 ; see also Table III in Appendix 
Clothing of Neanderthal man, 58 
Combe-Capelle (kom-be ka-pel) man: 

advent of, 27, 44; description of, 69 
Conjunctiva: racial characteristics, 89 
Cooking : in pots, 9 
Copper : discovery of, 10 ; industry in 

Scandinavia and Finland, 11 
Crete : civilization brought from Egypt, 

11; controls trade of the world, 69; 

importance of, 6, 7 

Cro-Magnon (kr6"ma"nyon') man: ad- 
vent of, 27, 44; artists painting mam- 
moth, 29* ; description of, 69 ; restora- 
tion, 27* ; skill, 30* 

Culture: Bronze, 12, 70; Iron, 12, 70; 
defined, 2, 3; spread of, aided by Se- 
mitic Race, 68; see also Table III in 
the Appendix 

Customs : evaluation of, 2 

Cyclades (slk'la-dez), 69 

Cymotrichous (sl-mot'ri-kus), hair, 48 

Cyprus (si'prus) : civilization of, 7 

Cyrus (si'rus), king of Persia, ca. 529 
B.C., 13 

Dagger : Acheulian period, 9* 

Dane, 100* ; see also Denmark 

Darius (da-ri'us), king of Persia, 521- 
486? b.c, 13 

Death rate, 53 

Deer, Irish, 40, 41* 

Denmark : nation formed, 77 

Devonian (de-vo'ni-an) period: plant 
life, 15* ; see also Geologic Chronology 
in the Appendix 

Dinaric (di-nar'ik) race : characteristic 
nose, 39 

Dingo (din'go),59, 60* 

Dog : domestication of, 28, 59 

Dolichocephalic (dori-ko-se-faTik) in- 
dex, 50 

Dolmen (dol'men : near Dundalk, Ire- 
land, 8* 

Domestication : of animals, 28, 65 ; of 
dog, 59; of milk-producing animals, 

Dravidian (dra-vid'i-an) Race : move- 
ments in the Pacific, 80; spread of, 
64, 65 

Dravidian-Hamitics (dra-vld'i-an-ham- 
It'ikz) : spread of, 61, 64; on tree of 
races, 86 

Dryopithecus (dri"6-pT-the'kiis), 16, 30* 

Dundalk, Ireland : dolmen, 8* 

Ears : racial differences, 51, 94 

Edom (e'dum), People of, 74 

Egypt, 7 

Elam (e'lam), 6, 7 

Elks, 22, 28 

Emotional response, 94 

Eoanthropus dawsoni (e"6-an'thro-pus 
da'son-I), 30* 

Eocene (e'6-sen) period, 14; see also 
Table II in the Appendix 

Eskimos : a pigmy race, 46 ; facial ex- 
pression, 38 ; movements of, 83, 84* ; 
narrow-headed, 50; type, 83*, 109* 

Etruscans, 70 

Euphrates (u-fra'tez), 29 



Exostoses (ek"s6s-to'sez) : racial char- 
acteristics, 89 

Eyes: racial differences, 49, 90, 91, 92; 
American Indian, 108; Australian 
Race, 104; Bushmen, 112; Malay- 
Race, 108; Mediterranean Race, 99; 
Mongolian Race, 108; Negrillo and 
Negrito races, 110; Nordic Race, 
103; Semitic Race, 107 

Face-shape : racial characteristics, 91, 
92; Alpine Race, 102; American In- 
dian, 108; Australian Race, 103; 
Bushmen, 112; Hamitic Race, 106; 
Malay Race, 108; Mediterranean 
Race, 99 ; Mongolian Race, 108 ; Ne- 
gro, Negrillo, and Negrito races, 110; 
Nordic Race, 103 ; Semitic Race, 107 

Facial Expression, 36 

Feet : Neanderthal man, 24 ; primitive- 
ness vs. specialization, 18; racial char- 
acteristics, 89 

Figs : cultivation begun, 68 

Finland, 1 1 

Finno-Ugrians (fin"6-oo'gn-anz), 72 

Fishing, 23 

Flint industry: during Ice Age, 16; 
early man, 22 ; implements, 8, 9*, 10* ; 
Neanderthal, 26* 

Folklore : evaluation of, 2 

Forest 350,000,000 years ago, 15* 

France (frans), Anatole (real name 
Jacques Anatole Thibault), (1844- 
1924), French critic, novelist, and sat- 
irist : quoted, 5 

Franks, 76, 77 > 

Fruits : cultivation begun, 68 

Ganges (gan'jez), 29 

Gauls : invasions of, 71 ; see also Horse- 
men of the Steppes 

Geographical conditions : effect on ra- 
cial development, 45 

Gepids (jep'idz), 76 

Germans, 76, 101* 

Gibbons : evolution of, 19 ; hand, 21* ; 
skull, 30*; type, 22* 

Goiter : Negro immunity to, 53 

Gorilla : hand, 19*, 20* ; skull, 30* ; type, 

Goths, 76 

Grains : cultivation started, 9, 65, 68 

Grapes : cultivation begun, 68 

Great Lakes, Africa, 29, 64 

Greece: early settlers, 11 

Greek, 101* 

Green monkey : hand of, 21* 

Grimaldi (gri-mal'di) man: advent of, 
27, 44; description of, 69 

Guereza (ger'e-za) : hand of, 21* 

Hafiz (ha'fiz or ha-fez), Persian poet 
of the 14th century, 13 

Hair : racial differences, 48, 49*, 88; Al- 
pine Race, 102; American Indian, 108; 
Australian Race, 103; Bushmen, 112; 
Hamitic Race, 105; Malay Race, 108; 
Mediterranean Race, 99 ; Mongolian 
Race, 108; Negro, Negrillo, and Ne- 
grito races, 110; Nordic Race, 103; 
Semitic Race, 107 

Hallstatt (hal'shtat) period : iron buck- 
ets, 12* 

Hamitic (ham-it'ik) Race: origin of, 
63; carries civilization to Crete, 11; 
characteristics, 105 ; comes in contact 
with Semitic and Mediterranean races, 
65 ; spreads into Europe, 64 ; spreads 
to India and the Pacific islands, 66; 
spreads into Africa, 66, 75; location 
today, 106 

Hamitic-Dravidian (ham-it'ik - dra- 
vid'i-an) Race: spread of, 61, 64; on 
tree of races, 86 

Hammurabi (ham"6"6-ra'be), king of 
Babylon, about 1900 B.C., 68 

Hand-ax, 9* 

Handicraft, Prehistoric : evaluation of, 
3 ; where found, 2 ; see also Table III 
in the Appendix 

Hands : Neanderthal man, 24 ; parallel- 
ism in, 20-21*; primitiveness vs. spe- 
cialization, 18; racial characteristics, 89 

Hawaiians : facial expression, 38 ; type, 

Head-form : racial differences, 50, 90 ; 
Alpine Race, 102 ; American Indian, 
108 ; Australian Race, 103 ; Bushmen, 
112; Hamitic Race, 106; Malay Race, 
108; Mediterranean Race, 99; Mon- 
golian Race, 108; Negro, Negrillo, 
and Negrito races, 110; Nordic Race, 

Hebrew people, 74 

Heidelberg (hi'del-burg) man, 30* 

Height : see Stature ; Sitting height 

Heruls (her'oblz), 76 

Himyarites (him'yar-itz), 74 

Hindu : skin, 88 ; type, 101* 

Hips : racial characteristics, 92 

Hissarlik (his-sar'lik) II, 69 

Hittites (hlt'Itz), 7, 68, 74 

Hoang Ho (hwang'ho'), 29 

Hog, Ruminating, 15* 

Homo heidelbergensis (ho'mo hi"del- 
berg-en'sis) : see Heidelberg man 

Homo neanderthalensis (ho'mo na- 
an"der-tal-en'sis) : see Neanderthal 



Homo sapiens (ho'mo sa'pi-enz) : see 
Cro-Magnon man 

Horsemen of the Steppes : aptitudes of, 
11; art, 13; dominate the Euphrates 
valley, 68; invade Europe, 69; inva- 
sion of, frontispiece 

Horses, 15*, 22, 28 

Hottentots : movements of, 64, 84 ; skull, 

Howler monkey : hand of, 21* 

Hrdlicka (her-lis'ka), Ales (1869- ), 
a Bohemian-American anthropologist : 
tracing Asiatic invasion of North 
America, 4* 

Hungarian, 101* 

Hunting: by Neanderthal man, 23; a 
cause of man's spreading, 28 

Hupa (hoo'pa) Indians, 82 

Hyenas, 22 

Hyksos (hik'sos), 74 

Iberian (i-be'ri-an) Race: see Mediter- 
ranean Race 

Ice Age : effect on man's development, 
8, 9 ; life and culture during, 16 ; see 
also Table II in the Appendix 

Idealism : racial differences, 94 

Igorots (e"go-rotz'), 107* 

Immunity to disease : no rickets in Yel- 
low-Brown Race, 90; racial differ- 
ences, 53, 94 

Implements : of Barbarians, 7 ; of Nean- 
derthal man, 58; of Neolithic age, 
10*; of Paleolithic age, 8, 9* 

Indexes : cephalic, 50 ; cranial, 50 ; hair, 
48; nasal, 50, 90, 91, 92; sitting- 
height, 49, 89 

Indian, American : advent of, 62, 66 ; 
characteristics, 108; facial expression, 
38 ; on tree of races, 86 ; movements 
among, 81; teeth, 51, 52, 91*; type, 

Indo-Aryans (In'do-ar'yanz or In'do- 
ar'i-anz), 13 

Indonesians (in"do-ne'shanz) : on the 
Pacific islands, 80; type, 113* 

Indus (ln'dus), 29 

Industries: Alpine Race, 68; early, 9; 
mining about 2500 B.C., 68; Neander- 
thal, 58; racial differences, 94 

Invasion movements, 55, 67 

Iodine : effect on racial characteristics, 

Irania (I-ran'nI-a), 13 

Iris : racial characteristics, 89 ; Ameri- 
can Indian, 108; Australian Race, 104; 
Malay Race, 108; Mediterranean 
Race, 98; Mongolian Race, 108; Nor- 
dic Race, 103; Semitic Race, 107 

Irish Deer, 40, 41* 

Iron: first used, 10; industry in Scan- 
dinavia and Finland, 11; Hallstatt 

period, 12* 
Iron Age : climate of, 29 ; see also Table 

III in the Appendix 
Iron sword culture, 70 
Iroquois Indians, 81 
Israelites, 74; see also Jews 
Italian, 100* 
Japanese, 109* 
Java man: advent of, 17; restoration, 

17*, 30* 
Jews : characteristic nose, 39, 74 ; type, 

Jutes (jootz), 77 
Kassites (kas'its), 74 
Kelts (kelts) : advent of, 65; see also 

Horsemen of the Steppes 
Kharri : see Horsemen of the Steppes 
Korean, 109* 

Krapina (kra'ye-na) skulls, 27 
Lagoa Santa (la-go'-a san'ta) Race, 

Lapps, 46 

Legs : racial characteristics, 89 
Leiotrichous (ll-6t'r!-kus) hair, 48 
Lemur (le'mur) : brain development, 18, 

34; facial expression, 36; hand, 

Leptorrhine (lep'to-rln) index, 51, 90 
Ligurians (lT-gu'rT-anz) : art, 13; spread 

stone and bronze cultures, 12 ; see also 

Mediterranean Race and Horsemen of 

the Steppes 
Linguistics : evaluation of, 2 
Lions, 22 
Lips: racial characteristics, 91, 92; 

Mediterranean Race, 99 
Littoral type, 27, 73 
Lombards (lom'bards or lum'bards), 76, 

Long Barrows, 71 
Macaque (ma-kak') : hand of, 20 
Magdalenian (mag"da-le'ni-an) period : 

climate of, 29; see also Table III in 

the Appendix 
Mahabharata (ma-ha-ba'ra-ta), 13 
Malay Race: characteristics, 108; on 

tree of races, 86 ; running amok, 53 ; 

settle Pacific islands, 80; spread of, 

81; type, 113* 
Mammals : primitiveness vs. specializa- 
tion, 18; 20,000,000 years and 15,- 

000,000 years ago, 15*; see also under 

name of species — dog, elk, horse, 

Mammoths, Woolly, 22, 25*, 29* 



Man : brain development, 19 ; causes for 
his spread over the earth, 28; classifi- 
cation of, 97 ; dispersal of, 54, 57 ; evo- 
lution of special attributes, 33; facial 
expression, 36, 37*; family tree, 30- 
31*; great races of, 43; hand of, 19*, 
20*; natural history of, 14 

Maps of invasion movements : first, 68 ; 
second, 72 ; third, 73 ; fourth, 76 ; fifth, 
80 ; sixth, 82 ; seventh, 83 ; eighth, 85 

Maps of spreading movements : first, 58 ; 
second, 60; third, 61 ; fourth, 62; fifth, 
66; sixth, 67 

Marmoset (mar'mo-zet") : hand of, 20* 

Mastodon, Four-tusked, 15* 

Mayan (ma'yan) Indians: form civiliza- 
tion, 83 ; ruins, 7* 

Mediterranean Race : origin of, 63 ; char- 
acteristics, 98; comes in contact with 
Hamitic Race, 65; in Chaldea, 11 ; lo- 
cation today, 99; mixed with Semitic 
and Alpine races, 74 ; on tree of races, 
86 ; product of seashore, 52 ; skin, 87 ; 
spread of, 66, 72 ; teeth, 52 

Megalith (meg'a-llth) builders, 76 

Melanesians (meT'a-ne'shanz) : origin 
of, 80; types, 113* 

Mental differences between races, 52, 94 

Mesocephalic (mes"6-ce-farik) index, 50 

Mesolithic (mes"6-lith'!k) period: in- 
dustries, 9 

Mesopotamia (mes''6-p6-ta'mi-a) : ex- 
cavations in, 6 

Mesorrhine (mes'6-rin or mes'6-rln) in- 
dex, 51 

Metal industry: among Alpine Race, 
68; see also iron, copper, etc. 

Migration movements, 55, 85 

Mining industry : Semitic Race, 68 ; see 
also iron, copper, etc. 

Minoan (mi-no'an) culture, 11 

Miocene (mi'6-sen) period, 14, 16; see 
also Table II in the Appendix 

Mitanni (mit-an'm), 68, 74 

Moab, People of, 74 

Mohammedans : invade the Pacific, 66, 

Mollusk, 14* 

Mongolian fold, 49; see also Eyes 

Mongolian or Mongoloid Race : charac- 
teristics, 108; broad-headed, 50; ears, 
51 ; sitting height, 49 ; on tree of races, 

Monkeys : evolution of, 19 ; facial ex- 
pression, 36 ; hands of, 20*, 21* 

Moors, 74 

Mousterian (moos-te'rT-an) period : 
scraper, 9* 

Music: racial differences, 94 

Mutations, 40 

Mycenean (mi"se-ne'an) culture, 11 

Nabataeans (nab"a-te'anz;, 74 

Nahua (na'wa) Indians, 83 

Neanderthal (na-an'der-tal) man: ad- 
vent of, 17; appearance, 24; brain, 34; 
culture of, 22; development of, 69; 
early location of, 54; family, 26*; flint 
workers, 26*; occupations and cus- 
toms, 58; on tree of races, 86; re- 
semblances among Indians, 62; resto- 
ration, 17*, 30*; spreading of, 57 

Neck: racial characteristics, 92 

Negrillo (ne-gril'6) Race: advent of, 
61; characteristics, 110; on tree of 
races, 86; people Central Africa, 64; 
physical structure, 90 ; a pigmy race, 
46; sitting height, 49; stature, 49 

Negrito (ne-gre'to) Race: advent of, 
60; characteristics, 110; comes in 
contact with Dravidians, 64; invades 
the Pacific, 80; on tree of races, 86; 
physical structure, 90; a pigmy race, 
46; type, 111*; young woman, 65* 

Negro Race: characteristics, 110; move- 
ments in Africa, 84; on tree of races, 
86; physical structure, 90; represen- 
tative types, 111*; spreading of, 60; 
see also Black Race 

Neolithic (ne"6-Hth'ik) Age: move- 
ments of man, 66 ; stag hunters, 59* : 
settlers in Scandinavia and Finland, 11 

Nile valley, 29 

Nordic (nor'dlk) Race: advent of, 27, 
65 ; characteristics, 103 ; eyes, 49 ; lo- 
cation today, 103 ; on tree of races, 
86; spreading of, 66; teeth, 52 

Norway : nation formed, 77 

Norwegian, 100* 

Noses : changes in size, 41 ; causes of 
variation, 45 ; racial differences, 50, 90, 
91, 92; Alpine Race, 102; American 
Indian, 108; Australian Race, 103; 
Bushmen, 112; Eskimo, 84; Hamitic 
Race, 106; Jewish, 39, 74; Malay 
Race, 108; Mediterranean Race, 99; 
Mongolian Race, 108; Neanderthal 
man, 24; Negro, Negrillo, and Ne- 
grito races, 110; Nordic Race, 103; 
Semitic Race, 107 

Notharctus osborni (noth"ark'tus 6s- 
bor'ni), 30* 

Oceania, Representative types from, 

Odor, Body : racial differences, 51 

Olfactory mechanism : evolution of, 18, 
34, 41 



Oligocene (61'i-go-sen") period, 14, 16; 
see also Table II in the Appendix 

Omar Khayyam (6'mar ki-yam'), Per- 
sian poet of the early part of the 12th 
century, 13 

Oranges : cultivation begun, 68 

Orang-utan (6-rang-od-tan) : hand, 
21*; skull, 30* 

Orthoceras (or-thos'er-as), 14* 

Ostrogoths (os'tro-goth), 77 

Oxen, 22, 28 

Paleolithic (pa"le-6-lith'ik) Age: im- 
plements, 8, 9*; see also Table II in 
the Appendix 

Paleontology : evaluation of, 2 

Parallelism in the hand, 20-21* 

Paris : attacked by Rollo, 78* 

Patagonians : stature, 45, 49 ; type, 

Pathologic differences between races, 

Pathology : evaluation of, 2 

Peaches : cultivation begun, 68 

Peasantry culture, 70 

Peking man, 22 

Pelasgian (pe-las'jT-an - ) Race: settle in 
Greece, 11; see also Mediterranean 

Pennsylvania Museum, University of: 
expedition, 6 

Persian, 101* 

Pharaohs, 64 

Philistines (fi-Hs'tinz), 74 

Philology : evaluation of, 2 

Phoenicia, 7 

Physiology : evaluation of, 2 

Pig, Giant, 15* 

Pigmentation: cause of variations, 45; 
racial characteristics, 89 

Pigmies : family, 46* ; races of, 46 ; stat- 
ure, 49; type, 111* 

Piltdown (pilt'doun) man, 30* 

Pithecanthropus erectus (pith"e-kan- 
thro'pus e-rek'tus) : see Java man 

Plants : in Devonian times, 15* 

Platyrrhine (plat'i-rln) index, 51, 92 

Pliocene (pli'6-sen) period, 14, 16; see 
also Table II in the Appendix 

Pliopithecus (pli"6pi-the'kus), 16 

Poetry : racial differences, 94 

Polynesians (pol"i-ne'shanz) : origin 
of, 80; facial expression, 38; types, 

Portuguese, 100* 

Pottery industry: among Alpine Race, 
68; in Danube country, 12; in Meso- 
lithic period, 9; of Barbarians, 7 

Potto (pot'6) : hand of, 21* 

Pre-Dra vidian (pre-dra-vid'i-an) Race: 
come in contact with Dravidians, 64; 
invade the Pacific, 80 ; on tree of races, 
86; related to aboriginal Australian, 
27 ; spreading of, 59 ; see also Austra- 
lian Race 

Primates : defined, 18 ; factors which de- 
termined, 34; rise of, 16 

Primitiveness vs. specialization, 18 

Proleik dolmen, 8* 

Propliopithecus (pr6-pli"6-pi-the'kus) , 

Psychology : evaluation of, 2 

Psychoses (si-ko'sez) : in White Race, 
52, 53; racial differences, 94 

Pueblo (pweb'lo) Indian, 109* 

Pulse: racial differences, 52 

Quaternary (kwa-tur'na-ri) epoch, 16 

Quichua (ke'chwa) Indians, 83 

Races : defined, 43 ; blending, 46 ; chemi- 
cal characteristics, 2; distinguishing 
characteristics, 47; formation of, 40; 
mixed, 112; movements, 54, 57; tree 
of, 86; see also Black Race, Yellow- 
Brown Race, White Race, and under 
names of sub-races. 

Ramayana (ra-ma'ya-na), 13 

Religions: evaluation of, 2 

Religious life : racial differences, 94 

Rhinoceros, Short-legged, 15* 

Rhinoceros, Two-horned, 15* 

Rhinoceroses, Woolly, 22, 25* 

Rhodesian man, 26 

Rickets : unknown in Yellow-Brown 
Race, 90 

Rollo the Ranger attacks Paris, 78* 

Round Barrows, 71 

Rugians (ro'ji-anz), 76 

Running amok, 53 

Rustum (rus'tum), Persian hero, 13 

Saadi (sa-de'), (died 1291), Persian 
poet, 13 

Sabaeans (sa-be'anz), 74 

Saxons, 76, 77 

Scandinavia : first settlers, 1 1 

Scots: tall stature, 45 

Scraper : Mousterian period, 9* 

Sea beach 500,000,000 years ago, 14* 

Semitic (se-mlt'Ik) Race: origin of, 
63 ; Arabs, 74 ; characteristics, 107 ; 
come in contact with the Hamitic 
Race, 65; in Chaldea, 11; mariners 
and business men, 68 ; mixed with Al- 
pine and Mediterranean races, 74; on 
tree of races, 86; spreads over north- 
ern Africa, 66 ; spreads over Palestine, 
73; spreads to India and the Pacific 
islands, 66; location today, 107 



Sephardic (se-far'dlk) Jews, 74 
Shoshonean (sho-sho'ne-an) Indians, 81 
Shrews : brain development, 18 
Siamang (se'a-mang) : hand of, 21* 
Siamese, 109* 

Siberians: a pigmy race, 46; type, 109* 
Silurian Race : see Mediterranean Race 
Sinanthropus pekinensis (sin-an'thro- 

pus pe"kin-en'sis), 22 
Sitting heights : racial differences, 49, 8) 
Skeletons, Prehistoric : where found, 2 
Skin: racial characteristics, 48, 87, 90; 
Alpine Race, 102 ; American Indian, 
108; Australian Race, 103; Bushmen, 
112; Hamitic Race, 106; Malay Race, 
108; Mediterranean Race, 98; Mon- 
golian Race, 108; Negrillo Race, 110; 
Negro Race, 110; Nordic Race, 103; 
Semitic Race, 107 
Slav, 101* ^ 

Somali (so-ma'le) Race: origin of, 74 
Spaniard, 100* 
Spider monkey : description of, 23* ; 

hand of, 21* 
Spleen : racial differences, 51 
Spreading movements, 55, 57 
Spy skulls, 27 

Stag hunters of Neolithic Age, 59* 
Stature : racial differences. 45, 49, 89 ; 
causes of variations, 45 ; Alpine Race, 
102; American Indian, 108; Austra- 
lian Race, 104; Bushmen, 112; Eski- 
mos, 84; Hamitic Race, 106; Malay 
Race, 108; Mediterranean Race, 99; 
Mongolian Race, 108; Negro, Ne- 
grillo, and Negritto races, 110: Nor- 
dic Race, 103; Semitic Race, 107 
Steppes, Horsemen of : see Horsemen 
Stone industry : implements, 8, 9* 10* ; 
in Scandinavia and Finland, 11; of 
Cro-Magnon, 27 ; of Neanderthal man, 
23, 58 ; spread of Ligurians, 12 
Sudanese, 111* 
Sumerian civilization: influence of, 6; 

over-thrown, 73 
Swede, 100* 

Sweden : oldest state in Europe, 77 
Swords : development of, 10 ; bronze, 

70*; iron, 70; of Barbarians, 7 
Talgai (tal-gfi'T) skull, 27 
Tarsier orTarsius : brain, 34 ; hand of, 21* 
Tarsioids, 16, 21*, 36 
Teeth : eruption, 52 ; evolution of, 42 ; 
Neanderthal man, 24; racial differ- 
ences, 51, 91, 92 
Temperature, Body : racial differences, 52 
Thraco-Phrvgians (thra"k6-fr!j-I-anz) , 

Thyroid gland, 51 

Tiglathpilezer (tig'lath-pi-le'zer), king 
of Assyria 745-727 B.C., 6 

Tigris (ti'gris), 29 

Toltec (tol'tek) Indians, 81 

Tools : of Barbarians, 7 

Totemism, 105 

Trapping, 23, 24 

Tree of Man, Family, 30-31* 

Tree of Races, 86 

Trees in Devonian times, 15* 

Trinil (tre-neT) man: see Java man 

Troy, 63 

Tuberculosis : Negro susceptibility to, 53 

Turks, 72 

Ulotrichous (u-16t"ri-kus) hair, 48 

Ural-Altaic (u'ral-al-ta'Ik) Race, 92 

Urartu (oor-ar'too), 6 

Van (van), 6 

Vandals, 76, 77 

Veda (va'da), 13 

Venereal diseases : Negro susceptibility 
to, 53 

Vikings : raids, 75, 77, 78*, 79* 

Villa Nova culture, 70 

Visigoths (viz'i-goths), 77 

Vision: evolution of, 18; binocular, 18, 

Wadjak (wad'jak) men, 27 

Weaving industry : beginnings, 10 ; 
among Alpine Race, 68; in Danube 
country, 12 

White Race : developed in Europe, 54 ; 
body odor, 51; ear characteristics, 51, 
94 ; face, 91 ; facial expression, 37 ; 
hair, 48, 49* 88; head and skull, 90; 
iris and pigmentation, 89 ; large spleen, 
51 ; long bones, 50 ; mental character- 
istics, 94; neck and body, 92; on tree 
of races, 86 ; psychoses, 52, 53 ; rep- 
resentative types, 99*, 100*, 101*, 102*, 
104* 106* 107*; sitting height, 50: 
skin, 87; stature, 89; sub-races, 98; 
teeth, 91 

Wichita (wich'T-to") Indians, 81* 

Woolly mammoths, 22, 25*, 29* 

Woolly rhinoceroses, 22, 25* 

Yang Tse Kiang (yang'tse-kyang'), 29 

Yellow-Brown Race : body odor, 51 ; 
ear, 94; face, 91; facial expression, 
38; hair, 48, 49*. 88; head and skull, 
91 ; iris and pigmentation, 89 ; mental 
characteristics, 94; neck and body, 
92 ; on tree of races, 86 ; representa- 
tive types, 109* ; skin, 88 ; stature, 89 ; 
sub-races, 108: teeth, 91* 92 

Yucatan (yoo"ka-tan') : ruins, 6, 7* 

Yunca (yoon'ka) Indians, 83 


Key to Pronunciation 

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6 " 

" lord 

a " " add 

e " " end 
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u " 

" use 

a " " care 

u " 

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a " " far 

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Library Bureau Cat. no. 1137 



3 5002 00361 0982 

Bean, Robert Bennett. 

The races of man; differentiation and di 

GN 31 . B4 1935 

Bean, Robert Bennett, 1874 

The races of man